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Message from the President 

Page 1 

Preface 

Page 2 



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1992 Presidential Awards for 
Design Excellence 



9 



Jury Members 

Page 4 



Award-Winning Projects 

Page 5 






1992 Federal Design 
Achievement Awards 



Jury Members 

Page 22 



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Award-Winning Projects 

Page 23 

Index of Award-Winning 
Projects by Federal Agency 

Page 62 

Credits 

Page 64 



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THE WHITE HOUSE 
WASHINGTON 

February 8, 19 94 



Design is an essential component of our 
society. It affects the structures of our homes, 
the ways we travel and communicate, and the ways 
we conduct our business. At its best, design can 
beautify our cities, encourage economic development 
and social change, and profoundly affect our lives. 
As the largest purchaser of design services in 
the world, the federal government is committed to 
achieving the highest standards of design, thus 
serving as a model for the private sector. The 
winners of this year's Presidential Design Awards 
deserve to be proud of their contributions to this 
legacy and the excellence of their work. 

From the Farmers Home Administration's 
Mer Rouge Villas low- income rural housing to the 
Federal Aviation Administration's EGIS Explosives 
Detector, these eight noted projects offer innova- 
tive examples in design that directly benefit the 
lives of average Americans. I commend the many 
talented designers who have worked to bring these 
projects to life. They help to ensure our nation's 
competitiveness and reputation for quality for 
generations to come. 



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Jury Members 



Michael Vanderbyl (chair) 
Principal, 
Vanderbyl Design 
San Francisco, CA 



Diana Balmori 

Principal, 

Balmori Associates 
New Haven, CT 



Donald G. Iselin 

Engineering and 
Management Consultant 
Santa Barbara, CA 



J. Max Bond, Jr. 

Partner, 

Davis, Brody & Associates 

New York, NY 



Katherine McCoy 

Principal, 
McCoy & McCoy 
Bloomfield Hills, Ml 



David M. Childs 

Chairman, 

Skidmore, Owings & Merril 

New York, NY 



Leatrice B. McKissack 

CEO, 

McKissack & McKissack 

Nashville, TN 



Peter T. Flynn 

Principal, 

Flynn Battaglia Architects 

Buffalo, NY 



Paul W. Shuldiner 

Professor of Civil Engineering, 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst, MA 



Mildred Friedman 

Design Consultant 
New York, NY 



Stanley Tigerman 

Principal, 

Tigerman McCurry 
Chicago, IL 







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Preface 



ICJI1. Some pose 
that it is a waste of time and money; 
others can document every dime and 
minute saved. Some profess that we 
can get along fine without it; others 
can prove that it is our best hope of 
holding our ground, of ensuring this 
country's continued leadership. 

Since the early 1970s, the Design 
Arts Program of the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts has endeavored to 
keep good design at the forefront of 
federal activities through its Federal 
Design Improvement Program. 
These efforts were bolstered in 1983 
when President Reagan established 
the Presidential Design Awards to 
encourage and recognize federal 
agencies for their design successes 
and directed the Arts Endowment to 
administer the program. The awards 
are given for projects and products, 
as well as programs and policies, 
that foster good design. 

There are two levels of awards: 
Federal Design Achievement Awards, 
awards of merit given by the National 
Endowment for the Arts as its highest 
recognition of quality design; and 
Presidential Awards for Design Excel- 
lence, awarded by the President of 
the United States for the highest 
quality design in accordance with 
international standards. During 
Round Three, four Achievement 
juries, composed of private sector 
design professionals, reviewed 
nearly 500 entries from 74 federal 
agencies and selected 57 projects to 
receive Federal Design Achievement 
Awards. These 57 were then reviewed 
by the Presidential jury and eight 



projects were recommended to 
receive Presidential Awards for 
Design Excellence. 

This book honors the 57 award- 
winning projects by showing what 
good design does and examining 
the benefits that the federal agency 
and, more importantly, the nation 
and its people, receive from it. 

Good design can improve the 
quality and beauty of our lives. 

Perhaps the most obvious benefit, 
but even people who can afford it 
the least, like the residents of two 
low-come housing projects, the Mer 
Rouge Villas and the Frank G. Mar 
Community Housing Project, can 
attest to it. So, too, can the thousands 
of people who use Washington's 
Union Station or Charleston's 
Waterfront Park. 

Good design can enhance 
America's competitiveness. 

More than 20 patent applications 
resulted from the development of 
the EGIS Explosives Detector, and 
the Varina-Enon bridge is heralded 
as the beginning of a new era in 
bridge design engineering. 

Good design can save time 
and money. This is particularly 
evident in projects like the Bendway 
Weirs on the Mississippi River and 
the Metered Analysis for Building 
Operation and Maintenance. 

Good design can improve 
performance. Good examples 
of this are the Alameda Naval 
Aviation Depot Plating Shop, the 
GAO's Publishing Program, and 
the Fast Flux Test Facility. 



Good design can simplify use, 
manufacture, and maintenance. 

This is certainly true of the Roosevelt 
Lake Bridge and the Massachusetts 
National Cemetery. 

Good design can improve 
safety. Read about the Seismic 
Upgrade of Building B-l 1 1 at the 
Lawrence Livermore National 
Laboratory and the Articulated 
Anthropometric Robot. 

Good design can enhance 
communication. This is clear from 
the Arctic Data InterActive, the 
National Gallery of Art's exhibitions, 
and the Escondido Civic Center's 
Signage. 

Good design can preserve 
historic and natural resources. 

This is demonstrated in the rehabili- 
tation of the Old Faithful Inn and the 
Ellis Island Immigration Museum, as 
well as the Alaska Maritime National 
Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive 
Conservation Plan. 

We need only glance at the great 
civilizations and governments of 
history to see that design is what they 
are remembered by - the aqueducts 
of Rome, the pyramids of Egypt, the 
cathedrals of Europe, the Great Wall 
of China, and the alphabet of the 
Phoenicians. In today's competitive 
world marketplace, good federal 
design is neither option, nor luxury. 
It is a necessity. 




Mer Rouge Villas 



Sprinkled among an old grove of 
pecan trees in Mer Rouge, Louisi- 
ana, are the buildings that comprise 
a new housing development. In 
keeping with the location's rural 
atmosphere, the buildings feature 
peaked roofs, arched windows, 
clapboards, columns, and front and 
side porches, fully in keeping with 
the graceful antebellum houses of 
the surrounding neighborhood. 
Surprisingly, however, Mer Rouge 
Villas are not $150,000 private 
houses — they are government- 
subsidized low-income housing that 
cost $36,000 per unit, including 
land, utilities, and "soft costs." 

The Mer Rouge Villas develop- 
ment, funded by the Farmers Home 
Administration (FmHA), breaks every 
unwritten rule of low-income hous- 
ing design to create a village-like 
ambiance that is marked by dignity, 
discipline and inspiration. They are 
an unqualified success because of 
FmHA's selection of a talented archi- 
tect and the agency's willingness to 



Credits 

Department of Agriculture, 
Farmers Home Administration, 
State of Louisiana, Alexandria, LA 

Wenzel & Associates, Architects, 
Tunica, MS 

Marshall Planning & Development, 
Eudora, AR 



stand by his design. The first design 
innovation lay in the choice of the 
site itself. By ranging the units in a 
twelve-foot grid on a diagonal to the 
pecan grove, patterns of crossed 
diamonds were formed within the 
trees. This scheme required the 
destruction of only two trees, and the 
units themselves benefited from the 
creation of entry allees typical of 
Southern estates. A practical benefit 
is the protection from the sun pro- 
vided by the trees. 

The 33-unit development 
consists of 16 one-bedroom units, 
12 two-bedroom units and five 



The architecture 
displays a thorough 
understanding off the 
rural vernacular and 
local climate. 





two-bedroom town houses. The plan 
includes a community building that 
serves as the design's focal point, 
containing the manager's unit, ad- 
ministrative office, laundry facilities 
and maintenance areas. The forms, 
materials, details, colors and siting 
demonstrate the architect's thorough 
understanding of the local architec- 
ture and draws from it without senti- 
mentality. The building forms relate 
to one another aesthetically, yet, 
each building clearly exists as a 
separate entity. The arrangement 
makes it seem as if the buildings had 
evolved into their present configura- 
tion naturally rather than being 
imposed on a site. 

The architect was able to success- 
fully combine the positive attributes 
of a sensitive and well-considered 
design with the mandates of cost- 
effective construction by relying on 
off-the-shelf components. Using 
ready-made standardized compo- 
nents skillfully, the architect pro- 
duced maximum effect with minimal 
dollars. Design details further 
complement the use of off-the-shelf 
components. 

Mer Rouge Villas is a model 
for American rural low-cost housing. 
Through its uplifting forms, the 
design speaks of hope and confi- 
dence and demonstrates the needs 
and values of the individual over a 
perceived need for regimentation. 





Blue Heron 

Coal Mining Camp 



A rotting coal loading plant was 
all that remained of Blue Heron, 
a mining camp in operation from 
1 938 until 1 962 and now part of 
the Big South Fork National River 
and Recreation Area in Kentucky. 
Commissioned by the Army Corps 
of Engineers to create an interpretive 
historical exhibit about Blue Heron, 
the project's designers took the 
ghostly coal processing plant (tipple) 
as their inspiration. Today, abstract 
skeletal structures scattered around 
the wooded hilly site capture the 
form and spirit of the mining 
community's original buildings — 
the workers' homes, the church, the 
school house and the company store 
— that had long since vanished. 

The main purpose of interpreting 
Blue Heron in this fashion was to 
preserve a community and a way of 
life that has rapidly vanished from 
Appalachia. The secondary purpose 
was to communicate the contempo- 
rary mechanized process of mining 



coal, featuring the tipple structure 
and mine entrance, and to explain 
the concept of the "company town" 
and its impact on the daily lives of 
the workers and their families. But 
the designers faced a critical prob- 
lem: evidence of this once bustling 
community was no longer at the site. 
Rather, artifacts existed only in the 
form of recollections, thoughts and 
photographs of those who had 
worked at Blue Heron, many of 
whom had moved into neighboring 
communities. 

The reminiscences of those 
who once lived and worked at Blue 
Heron were recorded on audio tape, 
and their voices and the sounds of 
daily life are broadcast through 
speakers in each structure. Lifesize 
cutout figures and snapshot photo- 
graphs of the former inhabitants 
now occupy the buildings. This pow- 
erful technique enlivens the experi- 
ence of visiting the site and deepens 
the sense of rediscovering the past. 




As a whole, the "reincarnated" Blue 
Heron is about the memories of a 
place that no longer exists and, as 
such, the exhibit is an imaginative 
blend of architecture and oral history. 

The success of this project, which 
has caused attendance at the park to 
rise by 20 percent, is due largely to 
the talent of its designers. But this 
success also should be credited to 
the design process that allowed them 
to work creatively and effectively. 
In commissioning Blue Heron's 
designers, the Army Corps acted as 
a client and a construction manager 
in collaboration with the designers. 

Materials chosen and the simplic- 
ity of the structures themselves were 
choices that resulted from a concern 
for low-cost construction, durability 
and minimal maintenance. Both the 
Army Corps and the designers are 
commended for resisting the tempta- 
tion to resort to "facsimile restora- 
tion" and recreating the entire camp. 
By reproducing the lost buildings in 
a skeletal form only, the designers 
have provided an x-ray of the past — 
a poignant remembrance of the 
routine and harsh life of the miners 
and their families. A monochromatic 
palette reinforces the reductive 
quality of the structures and rigorous 
life of the inhabitants. This approach 
produces an experience that is 
infinitely more powerful and honest 
than would otherwise have been 
possible. 



A sensitive interpretation 
off the past... the truf s 
structures convey the work 
and lives of the people who 
lived in this coal mining 
community. 




Department of Defense, 

U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, 

Nashville District, Nashville, TN 

DeMartin Marona Cranstoun Downes, 
New York, NY 

Scruggs & Hammond, 
Lexington, KY 

Chrisman Miller Woodford, 
Lexington, KY 




Old Faithful Inn 
Rehabilitation 



The Old Faithful Inn, located in 
Yellowstone National Park, Wyo- 
ming, is America's premiere log 
structure. Since its construction in 
1 903, the inn has served as a model 
of architecture existing in harmony 
with its natural surroundings. With 
its lofty gables, fantastic gnarled 
wood decoration, soaring seven- 
story lobby, and massive volcanic 
rock masonry, the Old Faithful Inn is 
a splendid example of the American 
arts and crafts movement. 

This rehabilitation project was 
established to return a valuable 
piece of America's Western heritage 
to the public. Since the inn opened, 
neglect and insensitive incremental 
changes to its design had taken their 
toll on the building's structural and 
aesthetic integrity. The wood shingle 
roof and sidewalls needed to be 
replaced and much of its decorative 
logwork was missing or rotten. 
Structural alterations made to 
accommodate changing needs and 
functions, such as the snack bar, gift 
shop, lounge rest rooms, and service 
areas, had severely compromised 
the historic building. The inn also 
was beset by structural hazards that 
inconvenienced and endangered 
guests. Stairways were not enclosed, 
kitchen equipment was seriously 
outdated, there were numerous 




10 





electrical code violations, and the 
building posed a serious asbestos 
threat. 

In rehabilitating the interior, it 
was not intended that the inn be 
restored to its appearance during 
any given time period. Rather, reha- 
bilitation was guided by the philoso- 
phy of returning a functional and 
appropriate design to the building 
where it had been compromised. 
Care was taken to select materials 
that were compatible with the inn's 
rustic theme, with the objective of 
retrieving the former glory of the 
building while allowing it to function 
as a modern, operating hotel. 

While the task of restoring the 
Old Faithful Inn was daunting in 
and of itself, work had to be accom- 
plished under extreme environmen- 
tal conditions. In order for the inn to 
be used by guests during the tourist 
season, much of the construction 
had to take place during the winter 
months when temperatures dipped 
well below zero. Over 1,000 shingles 
and hundreds of feet of logs were 
replaced. The installation of unusu- 
ally shaped logs and scribing of new 



rough sawn plank and beaded 
board walls to the irregular profile 
of log walls involved a tremendous 
amount of close tolerance handwork. 
Crews were sent into the woods for 
weeks at a time to find gnarled 
branches that were just the right size 
and shape for the restoration work. 
After ten years of intensive work, 
the Old Faithful Inn has been suc- 
cessfully restored but with the mod- 
ern systems improvements that will 
ensure its survival and efficient 
operation well into the future. This 
rigorous and well-implemented 
rehabilitation project is remarkable 
for what it has managed to do. It 
is also commendable for what it 
did not do: it in no way altered the 
remarkable spirit and visual charac- 
ter of this unique structure. 

Credits 

Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Denver Service Center, 
Lakewood, CO 



As the largest log structure 
in the United States, the 
Old Faithful Inn is a symbol 
of the compatibility of park 
buildings to their surroundings. 




11 




***,»»»** 



Bendway Weirs 
on the Mississippi 




This solution is innovative, 
simple and economical, 
and can be easily monitored 
and adjusted to individual 
applications. 



Keeping large rivers navigable to 
heavy commercial traffic is a costly 
and time-consuming enterprise. A 
river's natural tendency is to mean- 
der within its floodplain. Human 
efforts to contain this wandering, 
such as constructing large stone 
(revetment) works, create extensive 
sand bars that encroach into the 
channel and impede navigation. 
These bars must be periodically 
removed by dredging. Another 
technique has been to construct 
large dikes over these sand bars in 
an effort to control river flow. These 
techniques are expensive and offer 
only a short-term solution to the 
problem. A permanent and less 
costly solution was sought by the 
Army Corps of Engineers. 

The Bendway Weirs project con- 
structed at the Mississippi River's 
Dogtooth Bend downstream from 
St. Louis is a more permanent and 
more effective solution. At the same 
time, it is less destructive and less 
expensive than other traditional 
methods. Using a large water model 
of the Mississippi River, the Army 
Corps duplicated two existing river 
bends. Tests performed using this 
model showed that river current 



patterns in bendways display a radi- 
cal shift from their behavior in other 
parts of the navigation channel. After 
experimenting with a variety of ideas, 
engineers designed a series of un- 
derwater structures composed of 
small groins of uncemented stone 
(weirs) and placed them below the 
surface level of the river. These weirs, 
positioned from the outer bankline 
into the stream and angled slightly 
upstream toward the oncoming flow, 
harness the river's own hydraulic 
flow. This technique effectively allows 
the river to become self-correcting, 
widening the navigation channel and 
reducing bankline erosion in the river 
bend. 

Construction of the weirs took 
only 76 days — half the time of 
traditional techniques — at a cost 
of $2 million. Savings along this 
1 80 mile part of the 3,870 mile river 
channel have been impressive: eight 
to ten million dollars saved annually 
on dredging and $13 to $26 million 
a year in reduced navigational delays. 

The Bendway Weirs are proving 
to be one of the most innovative and 
effective design concepts tc impact 
river preservation and navigation in 
200 years. 



Downstream Upstream Channel 

Angled Dikes Chevrons Realignment 



■^Zf" 



^ 



Bar 
Dikes 




Perpendicular Downstream Submerged Bendway 

Angled Dikes Chevrons Vanes Weirs 



Credits 

Department of Defense, 

U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, 

St. Louis District, St. Louis, MO 



12 




13 




Keys and Locks in the Collection 
of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum 



The Smithsonian Institution's 
National Museum of Design at the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum in New York 
City, is home for nearly 250,000 
objects, but there are no facilities 
for their permanent display. This 
elegant 32-page, 8" x 8" handbook 
illustrates one of the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum's special collections and 
establishes a graphic format that 
will allow the museum to open up 
its special collections to a wide 
audience by presenting them in 
publications. 

Designed and produced for less 
than $5 per copy, Keys and Locks in 
the Collection of the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum is a testament to the 
designer's art. Profusely illustrated 
in black and white and extremely 
well organized, the design speaks to 
the reader with striking clarity. The 
deft handling of photographs and 
drawings avoids the appearance of 
austerity and instead causes the 
handbook to brim with inspired 
vitality. The publication places the 
evolution of keys and locks within 
the larger context of social and 
technological developments. The 
images range from elaborately 



chamberlain's key 

probably i8th century 
steel, ij 5 cm 
195a 161 if> 



Security and safety of person and 
property are needs that are shared 
around the world, and for thousand* 
of years keys and locks have helped 
to satisfy these needs. Because locks 
and other security devices preserve 
and protect valuables that may range 
from small jewelry and coins to 
family homes and warehouses, keys 
are by nature carefully guarded 
items, the use ol which is generally 
restricted to responsible individuals 
Edgar Frank, ^ author on the 
history of French metal work, 
succinctly describes the function of 
the lock and key as a means of 
distinguishing the difference 
between "mine" and "thine " 

In keeping with their function of 
protecting both individual and com- 
munal property, keys have become 
an important symbol of power and 
status. The temporal power vested in 
the key is a symbolic reference to 




II 



Keys and Locks 



power itself The goddess Athena 
earned the keys to her namesake city 
of Athens as a visual symbol of her 
importance to the community - a 
tradition that survives today in the 
presentation of the "keys to the ciry" 
to distinguished individuals Biblical 
references to keys and locks also 
confirm their practical and symbolic 
use "And the key to the house of 
David will I lay upon his shoulder, 
so he shall open, and none shall shut; 
and he shall shut, and none shall 
open" (Isaiah 22:22) The key be- 
came the attribute of St Peter, upon 
whom the Christian church was 
founded, and the papal coat of arms 
is often displayed above a pair of 
crossed keys From Shakespeare to 
Sigmund Freud, the key has 
remained a powerful visual symbol. 



in the Collection otrht 
Cooper-Hewitt Mmcun 



A modest brochure, 
perfectly suited to 
its task. 



The Smithsonian Institution^ 
National Museum i>t Design 




14 




wrought ceremonial keys to simple 
functional forms from Eastern and 
Western cultures. The visual and 
editorial matter is paced for impact 
and communication, and the text 
layout and the handling of the typo- 
graphy are of the highest design 
standards. 

The benefits of this design are 
tangible. The development of the 
low-cost format ensures that future 
special collections publications can 
be produced and offered to the 
public at a modest price. 

This project advances the stan- 
dards of federal design by demon- 
strating that beauty and quality are 
not confined to big-budget projects. 
It demonstrates that the power of 
design lies in the imagination of the 
designer and not in the size of the 
budget. 



Credits 

Smithsonian Institution, 

Cooper-Hewitt, 

National Museum of Design, 

New York, NY 

Jeana Aquadro, 
Savannah, GA 



6 probably French 
18th century 

1953, 161.24 



7 German 
18th century 
steel. 14 2 cm 
195a 161 128 



8 probably German 
17th century 



9 probably English 
iSth-igih century 
steel. 10. 2 cm 



1 French 
18th century 
steel. II .a cm 
1952 161 235 

: German or French 
i7th-i8th century 
steel. 136 cm 
1952.161.44 






silver and gold have been used, and a 
few. such as papal keys, were even 
set with precious or semi-precious 
stones. In the nineteenth cemury. 
mass production of keys brought 
other metals, such as brass, into 
prominence, and in our own century, 
aluminum and special alloys have 
been most frequently used. Within 
the last few decades, plastics and 
electronic devices have come to play 
roles in the evolution of key design. 

Until the nineteenth and twentieth 
centuries, key design was based 
on principles that developed in the 
ancient world. Most kevs consist 



of three basic elements : the bow. 
the bit. and the shaft The bow is 
the "handle"" of the key and is 
usually elliptical or round to permit 
easy grasping. The bit is the pan 
of the key that is inserted into the 
lock and serves as the point of 
contact between the key and the 
locking mechanism. Most often, the 
bit frees the lock when the key is 
turned through a senes of barriers, 
thus permitting the boh to be 
withdrawn. The shaft connects the 
bow and the bit. There are many 





15 




***«♦»** 



National Gallery of Art Exhibition Design 
1984-1990 




he National Gallery of Art in 
Washington, DC, has consistently 
maintained standards of excellence 
in exhibition design that are appreci- 
ated and admired by museum goers 
and other institutions the world over. 
Following a mandate that each 
exhibition should be experienced in 
a setting appropriate to the show's 
aesthetic and historical purpose, 
the gallery's design and installation 
department has established an 
innovative approach to the design of 
exhibitions that is both architectural 
and art historical. 

There can be no argument 
that the exhibitions mounted by the 
gallery's staff enhance the apprecia- 
tion and understanding of their 



subjects. Objects and collections are 
presented within their own unique 
art historical, aesthetic and socio- 
logical contexts. As the subject mat- 
ter shifts, so too does the design. 
The gallery mounts between 15 and 
25 major exhibitions each year, and 
the subjects can range from the 
paintings of a twentieth-century 
modern master to Japanese artifacts 
dating from the twelfth century. 
Accommodating such a diverse 
range of subjects and highlighting 
the special qualities of each object 
is one of the gallery's overriding 
accomplishments. The designers' 
subtle and inspired manipulation 
of form, color and lighting easily 
accommodate the tens of thousands 
of people that pass through each 
show while allowing viewers to re- 
tain the experience of an intimate, 
personal encounter with each work 
of art. 

Working together as a cohesive 
unit for more than 1 5 years, the 
design and installation staff has also 
developed numerous innovative and 
cost-saving techniques that allow for 
the maintenance of standards of 
excellence in presentation while 





16 



The design team has 
demonstrated a profound 
awareness of the importance 
of clarity. 



working consciously to control ex- 
penditures. 

As befits a national museum, 
the National Gallery of Art stands 
as an impressive testament to the 
principle of democratic access to 
art and culture. Installations are 
mounted to reflect the highest aca- 
demic, scholarly and art historical 
standards yet are never presented 
in an arcane or condescending 
manner. As the gallery continues to 
set attendance records, its success 
speaks to the need of a people to be 
nourished by stimulating power of 
art. That the gallery is so successful 
in this task owes a great deal to its 
inspired and dedicated design staff. 




National Gallery of Art, 
Office of Design & Installation, 
Washington, DC 



17 




Arctic Data InterActive 



This prototype of 
an electronic science 
journal demonstrates 
a new standard in 
digital communication. 




Arctic Data 

A Prototype CD ROM Science Journal 



BE 



jDJ I *J ■ 1 



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Digitally delivered visual communi- 
cation promises to become a major 
new vehicle for the dissemination 
of information in the coming years. 
Arctic Data InterActive, a prototype 
of an electronic journal using the 
Arctic as its subject, sets new stan- 
dards for the design of interactive 
disc programs. Most projects of this 
kind are developed by software 
engineers without knowledge and 
training in visual communications. 
Arctic Data InterActive is a rare 
instance of graphic designers 
applying their skills to this emerging, 
and increasingly important, area of 
informational design. It is a ground- 
breaking prototype developed by the 
Geological Survey that harnesses the 
power of computers and CD-ROM 
technology to bring dense, yet valu- 
able, scientific information easily 
and dramatically to life for the user. 

In 1990, the Geological 
Survey agreed to use emerging 
multi-media technology to promote 
access to data and information on 
global warming. The project's 



objective was to integrate a variety 
of scientific information sources, 
including the complete text of scien- 
tific and scholarly journals, numeri- 
cal and spatial data sets, and soft- 
ware for for data analysis. The Arctic 
region was chosen as the subject 
due to its dubious distinction of 
being one of the first geographic 
regions to respond to a changing 
climate. 

Contained on a CD-ROM com- 
puter disc, Arctic Data InterActive is 
based on hypertext technology, a 
software environment for developing 
non-sequential data-base manage- 
ment systems. This is the technical 
term for user-directed navigation 
through multiple layers of informa- 
tion in a variety of media that may 
contain text, data, graphics, moving 
imagery and sound. The advantage 
of this technology is that it allows 
easy access to the information by 
means of a graphic user interface 
(GUI). A GUI translates system func- 
tions into simple graphic symbols 
that allow the user to browse 



Icon Descriptions 



^ft 



H 



ToQuitADI 



Plays "Help" 
Animation 



Link to Related 
Information or Data 



Return Button 



^1 



DATA 



Index 



Save to Disk 



KeyWord Search 



DataRelatedto 
Article 



Click to Select 
Page orRecord 
Number 



AE 

DD 



mmr 



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Arctic Environment 
Data Directory 



Print Hard Copy 



Displays all Article 
Graphics 



Fo^v'ard & Backward 
Buttons 



18 



SMMR 



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January 

1979 (SMMR) 



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through information by exploring 
information levels. 

Although Arctic Data InterActive 
is a significant breakthrough in the 
application of multi-media and 
hypertext technologies, the technol- 
ogy used to create the program 
would be rendered useless if 
thoughtful graphic design did not 
allow the user to easily comprehend 
and move through the data. Much 
of the design, however, is invisible, 
which is one of the program's great- 
est assets. But where the hand of 
the designer is visible, Arctic Data 
InterActive is, indeed, superlative. 



Onscreen typography is clear, 
legible and elegant. The handling 
of the imagery contained in the 
program enhances comprehension 
and distills complex data into easily 
understood graphs and charts. 

In its thoughtful programming, 
dramatic impact and ease of use, 
Arctic Data InterActive has become 
a prototype for the effective use of 
CD-ROM multi-media technology. 
But through the involvement of 
talented graphic designers, the 
true power of this medium is fully 
exploited. 



Credits 

Department of the Interior, 

Geological Survey, Information Systems 

Division, Reston, VA 

InterNetwork, Inc., Del Mar, CA 



19 




EGIS Explosives Detector 




The product, while 
handsomely designed, 
accomplishes its task 
without compromise. 



The rise in international terrorism 
and the increase in attacks on U.S. 
government buildings overseas 
prompted the need to develop a 
simple device for determining the 
presence of plastic explosives con- 
cealed in packages, containers or 
personal effects. To be effective, 
such a device needed to rapidly 
perform accurate analyses, require 
no operator interpretation, and be 
highly portable. The EGIS Explosives 
Detector, the product that was 
developed to meet these needs 
and requirements, demonstrates 
the power of industrial design to 
reconcile function and aesthetics by 
creating a useful object that is far 
greater than the sum of its parts. 



In this product, we celebrate a recon- 
ciliation of purpose and aesthetics. 

The EGIS (short for the Greek 
word "aegis" meaning shield) 
Explosives Detector, commissioned 
by the Department of State with 
support from the Federal Aviation 
Administration, consists of a free- 
standing analytical unit and a hand- 
held sampling unit. The sampling 
unit draws air from the object being 
screened and is then plugged into 
the analytical unit. The operator 
pushes a button marked "Analyze," 
and 1 8 seconds later the analysis is 
complete. If the object contains no 
suspect material, a green "all clear" 
light activates. If the presence of 
explosive material is detected, a 
red warning signal activates and the 
unit indicates the type of material 
detected. 

The detector's, simple one-button 
design allows for accurate operation 
of the device without extensive train- 
ing. The entire interpretive process — 
detecting the presence of an explo- 
sive and identifying it based on its 
unique chemical signature — has 
been computerized, eliminating the 
need for a trained chemist to inter- 
pret the data. 

More than 20 patent applications 
from unique sampling and sensitive 
analytical techniques to high speed 
chromatography resulted from the 
development of this product. Under 
standard conditions, the entire pro- 
cess of sampling, distillation and gas 



20 



chromatography, chemiluminescent 
detection and data interpretation 
would normally take at least an 
hour. Innovative design and engi- 
neering employed in the EGIS have 
reduced the time required to less 
than 20 seconds. 

By virtually removing the 
possibility of human error from 



use of this product, the designers 
have also fulfilled an important 
psychological dimension — the need 
to feel secure. By creating a product 
that is accurate, self-monitoring and 
self-regulating, they have provided 
its operators and the public with 
the feeling that their protection is 
assured. 





Credits 

Department of State, 
Office of Countermeasures 
& Counterintelligence, 
Washington, DC 

Department of Transportation, 
Federal Aviation Administration, 
Technical Center, 
Atlantic City International Airport, NJ 

Thermedics Inc., 
Woburn, MA 

Design Continuum Inc., 
Boston, MA 



21 



1992 Federal Design Achievement Awards 
Jury Members 



Architecture and 
Interior Design 

Stanley Tigerman (chair) 
Principal, 

Tigerman McCurry 
Chicago, IL 

Pamela Baldwin 

President, 

Brown Baldwin Associates 

San Francisco, CA 

Diane E. Cho 

Principal, 

Cho, Wilks& Benn 

Baltimore, MD 

Arthur Q. Davis 

Principal, 

Arthur Q. Davis & 

John C. Williams, Architects 

New Orleans, LA 

David Dillon 

Architecture Critic, 

The Dallas Morning News 

Dallas, TX 

Judith H. Lanius 

Historic Preservation 
Consultant, 
Washington, DC 

Marshall E. Purnell 

Principal, 

Devrouax & Purnell 
Washington, DC 



Engineering 

Donald G. Iselin (chair) 
Engineering and 
Management Consultant 
Santa Barbara, CA 

Edward Cohen 

Managing Partner, 
Ammann & Whitney 
New York, NY 

Virginia Fair-weather 

Editor-in-Chief, 
Civil Engineering 
New York, NY 

Catherine L. Ross 

Associate Professor, 
College of Architecture, 
Georgia Institute of Technology 
Atlanta, GA 



Landscape Architecture, 
Urban Design and Planning 

Diana Balmori (chair) 

Principal, 

Balmori Associates 

New Haven, CT 

Jerome M. Cooper 

Principal, 

Cooper Carry & Associates 

Atlanta, GA 

Laurie Olin 

Principal, 
Hanna/Olin Ltd. 
Philadelphia, PA 

Emmet L. Wemple 

Principal, 

Emmet L. Wemple & Associates 

Los Angeles, CA 



Graphic Design and 
Product/Industrial Design 

Mildred Friedman (chair) 
Design Consultant 
New York, NY 

Milton Glaser 

Principal 

Milton Glaser, Inc. 

New York, NY 

Steven Heller 

Senior Art Director, 
The New York Times 
New York, NY 

Tomoko Miho 

Principal, 

Tomoko Miho Company 

New York, NY 

Rick Valicenti 

Principal, 
Thirst 
Chicago, IL 

Gianfranco Zaccai 

Principal, 

Design Continuum, Inc. 

Boston, MA 



22 









1992 Federal Design 
Achievement Awards 



Architecture 



Sheridan Federal 
Correctional Institution 



Northern Crop 
Science Laboratory 




Located on 1 90 acres of rolling 
farmland 50 miles southwest of 
Portland, Oregon, the Federal 
Correctional Institution at Sheridan 
is an example of thoughtful, efficient 
design in service of the public good. 
The 500-inmate medium security 
facility and 250-inmate minimum 
security satellite camp successfully 
balance the diverse needs of in- 
mates, prison employees and local 
residents, and through their design, 
have minimized the negative recep- 
tion communities often give to pro- 
posed correctional facilities placed 
in their midst. 

The architects worked closely 
with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, 
drawing on the bureau's existing 
guidelines for efficient and humane 
incarceration. The focal point of 
the design is a 450-foot courtyard 
around which the administrative 



Credits 

Department of Justice, 
Federal Bureau of Prisons, 
Washington, DC 

Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership, 
Architects, Portland, OR 



offices, inmate housing, and a 
gymnasium are arranged. Adjacent 
to the gymnasium are areas for 
educational and vocational training, 
assemblies, cafeteria, outdoor recre- 
ation and the Federal Prison Indus- 
tries factory, which manufactures 
wooden furniture for sale to federal 
agencies. The administrative core 
of the satellite camp mirrors the 
medium security section on a 
smaller scale. 

Evidenced in the design of this 
facility is the extreme deference the 
architects gave to the concerns of 
the surrounding community. Draw- 
ing on elements common to the 
indigenous architecture of the area, 
they created a facility that in its 
building materials, colors, massing 
and scale, recall the character of the 
surrounding agricultural building 
types. This concern for appropriate- 
ness also resulted in a correctional 
institution that, while providing for 
safe and effective incarceration of 
offenders, is not oppressive. The 
inmates are not punished by the 
buildings, and it is obvious that this 
institution is oriented toward reha- 
bilitation as opposed to just security. 



Located at the edge of a university 
campus on the northern prairie, the 
Northern Crop Science Laboratory 
in Fargo, North Dakota, houses 
five groups of agricultural research 
scientists who study the principal 
northern crops of wheat, sunflowers 
and sugar beets. This research facil- 
ity constitutes the final phase addi- 
tion to existing greenhouses and 
surrounding test fields. 

The design of the facility evolved 
out of a three-part methodology. 
First, during the design phase, 
architects and engineers worked 
closely with future building occu- 
pants to identify and document 
programmatic needs and reconcile 
those needs with the project budget. 
Second, during the conceptual de- 
sign phase, architects developed 
eight different designs from which 
three were selected by users and 




24 



North River Water 
Pollution Control Plant 



engineers. The final design was 
selected for development for its 
efficiency, function, communal 
quality and performance. 

The resulting family of structures 
is organized around a central yard. 
The building design incorporates 
the three principle brick colors of 
the existing campus structures in a 
coursing pattern that ranges from a 
dark color at the base of the build- 
ings to a light upper story. The 
shape of the individual structures 
resulted from the requirements of 
the activities performed within; high 
technology environments for elec- 
tron microscopy, for instance, are 
distinct and separate from the repair 
sheds for field equipment. 

The buildings evoke the vernacu- 
lar quality of indigenous farm build- 
ings without resorting to hokey de- 
sign motifs. They also afford views 
into and across the open yard that 
relate and connect those working 
within them to the vast expanse of 
the prairie beyond. The collaborative 
design methodology further ensured 
that the buildings would meet the 
researchers' functional needs as well 
as providing a distinctly collegial 
atmosphere in which to work. 

Credits 

Department of Agriculture, 

Red River Agricultural Research Center, 

Fargo, ND 

HGA, Architects and Engineers, 
Minneapolis, MN 

Lightowler Johnson Associates, 
Fargo, ND 



Until the completion of the North 
River Water Pollution Control Plant 
in 1986, nearly 150 million gallons 
of raw, untreated sewage were 
being discharged into the Hudson 
and Harlem rivers each day. The 
new plant serves the western half of 
Manhattan, an area composed of 
5,1 00 acres and home to 556,000 
people. The plant treats an average 
dry weather wastewater flow of 
170 million gallons per day and 
an average wet weather flow of 340 
million gallons. 

To effectively process this volume, 
a 28-acre platform was built over 
the Hudson River. Originally, plans 
called for this platform to support 
large expanses of open settling 
tanks, corrugated metal buildings 
and other less sightly components of 
open sewage treatment plants. In 
response to community opposition, it 
was decided to redesign and enclose 
the plant and provide a flat roof to 
support a park. The Clean Water Act 
of 1977 required maximum natural 
ventilation which lead to opening the 
exterior walls with arches. These 
reinforce the association between 
water and architecture, reminding 
the viewer of the elegant arches of 
Roman aqueducts. The resulting 
design has not only solved a practi- 
cal need of the urban infrastructure 
but has also transformed the plant 
into a dramatic presence along one 
of the country's most spectacular 
urban waterscapes. 

This project is notable for the 
care paid to housing a necessary but 
unglamorous function. Too often in 
the design of similar facilities there is 
little regard given to the aesthetic 
impact they have on the surrounding 
environment. That this project, larger 



v - j. 




in volume than the Pentagon, can 
make such a stunning contribution — 
both aesthetically and functionally — 
to the City of New York is a powerful 
argument for the positive impact that 
federally-sponsored design projects 
can have on urban planning. 

Credits 

Environmental Protection Agency, 
Region II, New York, NY 

City of New York, Department of 
Environmental Protection, New York, NY 

C. Theodore Long, Architect-Engineer, 
New York, NY 

TAMS Consultants, New York, NY 

Gibbs & Hill, Inc., New York, NY 

Feld, Kaminetzky & Cohen, New York, NY 



25 



Architecture 



Glendale Heights 
Post Office 




The Postal Service is often the most 
direct link that the average citizen 
has with the government. Good 
design can make that experience 
positive. The designers of a new 
postal facility in Glendale Heights, 
Illinois, overcame significant 
obstacles posed by the facility's 
location to create a striking, vibrant 
and efficient public building. 
Located in an industrial park, this 
24,000-square foot post office is 
surrounded by a warehouse and 
other commercial buildings. 
Because the post office is first seen 
from the highway, the building 




needed to be easily recognizable 
while still relating to its buff and 
red brick industrial neighbors. 

The plan is simple, consisting 
of two basic components: a high 
bay workroom and a low ceiling 
custom lobby. A blue glazed brick 
wall punctuated with a field of small 
openings defines the customer 
service area. An undulating wall in 
striped red and buff brick indicates 
the workroom. Between these two 
areas — in the folds of the facade — 
mail is received and deposited. This 
space is illuminated by triangular 
skylights. 

Construction materials were 
chosen for their economy and dura- 
bility. The potentially monotonous 
rows of lock boxes that dominate 
the public space are arranged in 
bays that pierce the workroom wall, 
allowing a higher ceiling height. 
Writing tables and service counters 
have red granite tops on painted 
steel and laminate casework. 
Employee work areas are designed 
for efficiency — white, airy spaces 
contrast with the color-saturated 
customer areas. 



The facility is remarkably 
efficient. Energy efficiency was 
enhanced by reducing the number 
of building openings and siting the 
carrier parking structure so that it 
shades the west elevation. As a 
result, the building has a cooling 
load that is 60 percent less than 
the Postal Service average for a 
building of this size and type. 
A clear demonstration that 
innovative design can make the 
difference between an ordinary 
structure and an extraordinary one 
even under adverse conditions of 
location and tight budgets, this 
building sets a standard for the 
design of local post offices that 
increasingly are being sited outside 
the city center. 

Credits 

U.S. Postal Service, 
Facilities Service Center, 
Chicago, Chicago, IL 

Ross Barney + Jankowski, 
Chicago, IL 



26 



Frank G. Mar Community 
Housing Project 



Oakland, California, is a city of 
cultural vitality and untapped eco- 
nomic potential. Like many cities 
these days, growth and change have 
placed great strains on many of its 
communities and neighborhoods. 
In the early 1 980s, a local develop- 
ment corporation identified a com- 
plex array of needs and opportuni- 
ties in a rapidly expanding but un- 
derdeveloped area of Oakland's 
downtown. One need was housing, 
and in 1990 the innovative Frank G. 
Mar Community Housing project 



was completed in an effort to meet 
that need. 

Using data from the U.S. Census, 
the Oakland Office of Community 
Development and other public and 
private housing assistance agencies, 
the East Bay Asian Local Develop- 
ment Corporation found that the 
existing housing stock did not ad- 
equately support the elderly or large 
families. Working in collaboration 
with neighborhood groups, the city's 
Office of Community Development 
and Department of Housing and 




Urban Development, the corpora- 
tion chose a site and arranged 
financing. 

The project successfully achieved 
the design goals of providing afford- 
able housing without sacrificing a 
sense of privacy and "defensible 
space" among its residents, combin- 
ing mid-rise buildings with a nine- 
story tower. In addition to the resi- 
dential component, the project in- 
cludes a number of amenities, such 
as public and private open spaces, 
laundry facilities, a community 
center, a day-care facility, parking 
garage and street-front commercial 
spaces. The design of the project 
affirms the residents' individuality 
and humanity, characteristics often 
overlooked in urban housing devel- 
opments. 

More than a housing develop- 
ment, this project constitutes the 
creation of an urban village imbued 
with a feeling of true community. 
The project's mixed-use design 
encourages use by residents and 
non-residents alike and fosters 
cultural and ethnic integration. As 
a result of diligent value engineering 
and on-going cost evaluation, the 
final hard construction costs came in 
$200,000 under the $1 2.3 million 
budget. 

Credits 

Department of Housing and 
Urban Development, Region IX, 
San Francisco, CA 

City of Oakland, Redevelopment Agency, 
Oakland, CA 

East Bay Asian Local Development 
Corporation, Oakland, CA 

Bridge Housing Corporation, 
San Francisco, CA 

MacDonald Architects, San Francisco, CA 



27 



Architecture 



Washington Union 
Station Rehabilitation 




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Designed in 1904 by Daniel 
Burnham, Washington's Union 
Station served for many years as 
a stately and elegant gateway to 
the nation's capital. During the 
intervening years, the decline of rail 
travel and the powerful railroad 
companies, careless alterations and 
deferred maintenance caused the 
station to deteriorate. When a leak- 
ing roof caused the structure to 
become unsafe in 1981, the building 
was closed. 

Later that year, in recognition 
of the station's historic importance, 
Congress passed the Union Station 
Redevelopment Act and set aside 
funds to restore the station to its 
original grandeur and to modernize 
its infrastructure and utility systems. 

Credits 

Department of Transportation, Federal 
Railroad Administration, Washington, DC 

Union Station Redevelopment Corporation, 
Washington, DC 

Harry Weese Associates Architects, Inc., 
Washington, DC 



Concurrently, a development team 
was selected to develop commercial 
and office space in the station so 
that, once rehabilitated, it would 
become economically viable. The 
extensive planning and collabora- 
tion involved in the restoration 
efforts ensured that an appropriate 
mix of retail operations would 
complement and enhance the 
station without detracting from its 
historic design. 

The $73.5 million rehabilitation 
entailed restoration of the Beaux Arts 
ornamentation in all of the major 
public spaces in the building. New 
state-of-the-art buildings systems 
were installed and phasing and 
staging for Metrorail and Amtrak 
constructed. A multi-disciplinary 



team of experts and craftspeople- 
including historic preservationists, 
engineers, materials conservation- 
ists, paint experts and numerous 
other specialists — were involved 
in this comprehensive effort. The 
majestic coffered ceiling in the 
station's Main Hall contributes to 
one of Washington's greatest inte- 
rior spaces. 

Union Station now serves as 
not only a transportation hub for 
the nation's capital but also as a 
vital economic anchor in an area 
of Washington's downtown that 
had lain fallow for years. New 
public and private projects in the 
area, including commercial office 
space, hotel and government- 
related projects are underway. 



28 




Ellis Island Immigration 
Museum Restoration 



Rarely is sensitivity to the historic 
value of a place so apparent in 
the restoration of a structure as it 
was during the rehabilitation of the 
Main Building on Ellis Island. As the 
entry point into the United States of 
the greatest migration in the modern 
world, Ellis Island is a powerful 
symbol of the promise of America 
and democracy. As such, it holds 
a special place in the collective 
consciousness of the nation. 

But from 1954 to 1974, the 
Main Building on the island, where 
the majority of the arrivals were 
processed, stood vacant. Vandalism, 
neglect and exposure to the ele- 
ments had left it in a ruinous state. 
The project to restore the building 
and some 225,000 square feet of 
interior spaces became the largest 
and most comprehensive historic 
preservation effort undertaken in 
the history of this country. 

Prior to beginning the design 
work, extensive research and existing 
condition surveys were conducted 
to analyze the historic use and archi- 
tectural significance of all spaces to 
be restored. These findings were 
then documented in an eleven- 
volume Historic Structures Report that 
became the basis for subsequent 
planning and design decisions. 

Credits 

Department of the Interior, 

National Park Service, Denver Service 

Center, Lakewood, CO, and 

Statue of Liberty National Monument, 

New York, NY 

Notter Finegold + Alexander Inc., 
Boston, MA 

Beyer Blinder Belle, New York, NY 





Historic changes and alterations 
to the building were studied and 
the decision was made to fully 
restore the structure to the condition 
it enjoyed during the period from 
1918 to 1924, when the majestic 
Guastavino ceiling was installed in 
the Main Hall's Registry Room. 

Relying on period documents 
and photographs as well as on 
the recollections of surviving immi- 
grants, restoration began. Interior 



restoration involved cleaning the 
ceiling, refurbishing existing chande- 
liers and restoring the building's 
imitation Caen stonework. Exterior 
restoration included cleaning and 
repointing the masonry, repairing 
410 windows, restoring the Ludowici 
roof tiles and replicating and replac- 
ing four copper domes. 

Fittingly enough, the restored 
building functions much as it origi- 
nally did by accommodating large 
numbers of people who arrive by 
boat. The success of the project lies 
in the respect given to the original 
qualities of the building, allowing 
visitors, with a little imagination, 
to approximate the experience of 
landing here seventy years ago. 



29 



Architecture 



Bicentennial Lighthouse 
Fund Program 



Over 200 years ago, President 
Washington signed a bill that be- 
came known as the Lighthouse 
Preservation Act of 1789. The bill 
instructed Congress to assume re- 
sponsibility for the expenses for 
operating and maintaining aids 
to navigation. This bill resulted in 
construction of numerous light- 
houses, keeper's quarters, river 
lights and other structures and 
objects across the United States. 
Over the years, many of these his- 
toric buildings fell victim to neglect, 
disrepair and vandalism as their 
original functions were superseded 
by new technology. Recognizing 
that a vital link to America's mari- 
time history was in danger of being 
lost, Congress appropriated funds 



to establish the Bicentennial Light- 
house Fund in 1 988, to be adminis- 
tered through the National Park 
Service as part of its Historic Preser- 
vation grant program. 

From 1988 to 1991, the Park 
Service awarded almost $3 million 
in matching grants for the preserva- 
tion of lighthouses and related 
structures in 34 states. In all, the 
program has facilitated the preser- 
vation and rehabilitation of 152 
lighthouses around the country. 
In implementing this program, 
the Park Service worked closely 
with the National Trust for Historic 
Preservation, State Historic Preserva- 
tion Officers, the Lighthouse Preser- 
vation Society, and various private 
groups. This collaborative effort 





helped establish guidelines for 
project selection, preservation, 
allocation of funds, and resolution 
of problems arising at individual 
project locations. 

Beyond the rehabilitation of 
significant structures, the program 
served to galvanize many communi- 
ties and local preservation organi- 
zations by fostering heightened 
awareness of the valuable structures 
in their midst. Many of the renovated 
structures are now being put to 
creative new uses — as wildlife 
research centers, museums, and 
bed-and-breakfast inns, among 
others. A technical preservation 
bibliography, National Park Service 
Reading List — Preserving Historic 
Lighthouses, was produced to 
enable this valuable work to be 
carried forward by others. 

Credits 

Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, Preservation 
Assistance Division, Washington, DC 

Lighthouse Preservation Society, 
Rockport, MA 



30 



Second Ohio Historic 
Bridge Inventory and 
Preservation Plan 

The need for efficient surface trans- 
portation is often in conflict with the 
preservation of architecturally or 
historically significant landmarks. 
One of the achievements of the 
253-page Second Ohio Historic 
Bridge Inventory, Evaluation and 
Preservation Plan is that it provides 
a framework for balancing transpor- 
tation engineers' desire for safe 
highways and preservationists' 
interest in conserving historic 
resources. 

In 1983, the Ohio Department 
of Transportation published the 
result of the first Historic Bridge 
Inventory, Evaluation and Preserva- 
tion Plan. This project is an update 
of that inventory and expands upon 
it to include information on bridges 





Credits 

Department of Transportation, 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Ohio Division, Columbus, OH 

State of Ohio, Department of 
Transportation and State Historic 
Preservation Office, Columbus Ohio 



built between 1941-1950. The final 
document grew out of the comple- 
tion of four distinct phases: estab- 
lishing a complete inventory of Ohio 
bridges of the period according to 
type; physically inspecting the 
bridges identified for evaluation 
or documentation; evaluating the 
inventoried bridges and identifying 
those potentially eligible for the 
National Register of Historic Places; 
and the publication and dissemina- 
tion of the report. As an effective 
planning tool, the document pro- 
vides a common ground between 




engineers concerned with service 
and utility and preservationists 
concerned with protecting Ohio's 
heritage. 

The plan was widely distributed 
to county and district engineers, 
planning agencies, and local offi- 
cials and has been made available 
to educational institutions, libraries 
and private individuals. Setting state- 
wide guidelines and standards for 
identifying, evaluating and preserv- 
ing a valuable state resource, it 
contains useful information on the 
physical attributes of historic bridge 
construction. The report also pro- 
vides engineers and contractors 
with information they need to repair 
and maintain historic bridges in 
compliance with current safety codes 
and will allow expeditious replace- 
ment of bridges not eligible for the 
National Register. 



31 



Engineering 



Varina-Enon Bridge 



Interstate 10 Completion 




The Varina-Enon Bridge in Rich- 
mond, Virginia, embodies significant 
new developments in bridge con- 
struction and design technology and 
may well herald the beginning of a 
new era in bridge design engineer- 
ing. The 4,680-foot-long structure 
includes a 630-foot main span over 
the St. James River's navigational 
channel. The first cable-stayed 
bridge to use pre-cast triangular 
frames to create the cable stays, 
its unique design consists almost 
entirely of concrete elements that 
were cast at the site. 

The bridge structure consists of 
28 spans, 21 approach spans and 
a continuous main span unit that 
consists of six 150-foot spans and a 
630-foot center span. The twin box 
girders, which run continuously 

Credits 

Department of Transportation, 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Virginia Division, Richmond, VA 

State of Virginia, Department of 
Transportation, Richmond, VA 

Figg Engineering Group, 
Tallahassee, FL 



along the entire length of the bridge, 
were precast in segments of varying 
lengths. The center span is designed 
as a one-directional cantilever. Every 
other segment is supported by a 
cable stay attached to the twin box 
girders by means of a triangular 
frame that transmits the load from 
each separate road deck into the 
cable stays and, in turn, to the 
bridge foundations. 

This innovative structure is made 
up of approximately 570 different 
precast elements and is supported 
by 1 3 cable stays at each of two 
support pylons. This resulted in 
significant cost savings. The bridge 
was bid at $34 million or $75 per 
square foot. Had the cable-stayed 
structure not been employed and a 
more traditional box girder structure 
been erected instead, costs would 
have likely been three times this 
amount. 

This significant new direction 
in cable-stayed bridge construction 
has yielded a structurally impressive, 
economical and aesthetically 
pleasing product. Engineers from 
around the world have visited the 
Varina-Enon Bridge to learn from 
its accomplishments. 



This 15-mile section of highway 
running through Phoenix, Arizona, 
was the final link in the 2,460-mile, 
coast-to-coast 1-10 interstate that 
extends from Jacksonville, Florida, 
to Santa Monica, California. 
Completion of this project was 
marked by many exemplary accom- 
plishments in engineering, safety, 
environmental impact and public 
consensus. It serves as a model for 
conscientious planning and design 
methodology. 

While the obvious goal of the 
project was to complete the trans- 
continental 1-10 roadway, the project 
involved numerous ancillary goals, 
among them that the highway be 
soundly engineered with an empha- 
sis on capacity, safety, durability, 
drainage and aesthetics. In addition, 




32 



Roosevelt Lake Bridge 




the project sought to be environ- 
mentally responsible in its construc- 
tion and siting. A final goal was that 
adverse effects on adjacent neigh- 
borhoods, historic structures and 
archaeological sites be mitigated. 

The project's design began with 
an evaluation of project concepts, 
aided by intensive public involve- 
ment during the process assessing 
the project's environmental impact. 
The integrity of adjoining neighbor- 
hoods was preserved by routing the 
highway to avoid destruction of 
historic structures and incorporating 
them into the landscape design of 
1-10. While highways often result in 
the dramatic loss of useable space, 
this project actually resulted in the 
creation of a half-mile long park in 
downtown Phoenix, built on a deck 
erected over one section of the free- 
way. Community involvement was 
instrumental in developing this 
design solution. 

For all of the consideration 
that went into the planning and 
construction of the 1-10 spur, it 
was completed ahead of schedule 
and $200 million below the initial 
estimate. 

Credits 

Department of Transportation, 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Arizona Division, Phoenix, AZ 

State of Arizona, Department of 
Transportation, Phoenix, AZ 

Howard Needles Tammen & Bergendoff, 
Phoenix, AZ 



To provide additional storage 
capacity in Roosevelt Lake in Gila 
County, Arizona, for flood protection 
to downstream communities, the 
Bureau of Reclamation wanted to 
raise the crest of the historic 
Roosevelt Dam by 40 feet. Before 
the dam could be modified, Arizona 
Route 1 1 8 needed to be re-routed 
over the lake. Roosevelt Lake and 
its surroundings contain environ- 
mentally sensitive areas, however, 
and the bridge design had to satisfy 
the requirements of public safety, 
while reducing environmental 
impact and visual intrusion on the 
scenic landscape. 

The Arizona Department of 
Transportation solicited two design 
proposals, one in concrete and 
another in steel and concrete 



230 feet and supports more than 
1,000 feet of two-lane roadway was 
then anchored to the concrete por- 
tions, resulting in an a functional 
design that enhances the lakefront 
as well. 

The Roosevelt Lake Bridge is 
striking for its narrowness, particu- 
larly in comparison to its height. 
This slim profile and reduced mass 
required extensive wind tunnel test- 
ing to determine stability in the face 
of the high winds that sweep from 
the river canyon. 

These technical innovations 
resulted in a 30 percent reduction 
in cost over an all-concrete design, 
proving the structural and economic 
viability of composite bridge design 
while providing for a virtually main- 
tenance-free structure. 




composite. The winning proposal 
called for innovative use of pre- 
stressed concrete and epoxy-coated 
reinforced steel to compose the first 
70 feet of the support arch. This 
solution protects the structural steel 
members from corrosion when the 
lake level is raised. A structural steel 
support arch that rises to a height of 



Credits 

Department of Transportation, 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Arizona Division, Phoenix, AZ 

State of Arizona, Department of 
Transportation, Phoenix, AZ 

Howard Needles Tammen & Bergendoff, 
Phoenix, AZ 



33 



Engineering 



South Beltline Freeway 



Wilmington Harbor South 
Disposal Area 




In Madison, Wisconsin, a proposal 
to build a 6.1 -mile highway degen- 
erated into a bitterly contested issue 
that aroused the enmity of environ- 
mentalists and transportation offi- 
cials alike for more than 25 years. 
By 1981 , the Wisconsin Department 
of Transportation, however, had 
developed a design methodology 
founded on a broad public consen- 
sus that, together with an extraordi- 
nary engineering effort to prevent 
environmental destruction, enabled 
the project to move ahead. 

The completed six-lane freeway 
stretches across wetland areas, but 
adverse effects were minimized 
thanks to several measures taken 
to engender public support: private 
land was acquired and restored 
to a wetland environment; highway 
fill from a neighboring lake was 
dredged to create open water 
wildlife ponds that enhance the 
existing wetlands; sedimentation 
ponds were constructed to control 
run-off contamination; and 122 
acres of new wetlands were pur- 
chased to be permanently held in 
public trust. 



These measures grew out of 
information gathered from extensive 
public hearings and informational 
meetings, input from citizens' com- 
mittees and two environmental 
impact statements. The process of 
highway planning thus became a 
series of design modifications and 
refinements aimed at mitigating 
wetland damage. 

These refinements actually 
resulted in cost savings as well 
as protecting the wetland areas. 
The project, along with a 1.6 mile- 
segment of the freeway that was 
expanded from four to six lanes west 
of the marsh, was completed for 
$61 million — $6 million less than 
projected. And, although the 
project's cost savings are significant, 
the preservation of vital wetland 
areas along with the restoration 
of the public trust in the process 
are very nearly priceless. 

Credits 

Department of Transportation, 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Wisconsin Division, Madison, Wl 

State of Wisconsin, Department of 
Transportation, Madison, Wl 



Routine dredging of Delaware's 
Christina River generates a million 
cubic yards of sediment that must 
be disposed of each year. By 1986, 
the two available disposal sites were 
reaching critical capacity and a new 
site was needed. To meet this need, 
an innovative facility — the Wilming- 
ton Harbor South Disposal Area — 
was constructed using new technolo- 
gies that allow for safe disposal 
along the tidal flats and shallows 
of the Delaware River. 

Innovative design was needed 
because weak, highly compressible 
silts and clays at the site made 
traditional containment construction 
impractical and cost prohibitive. 
The solution was a design based 
on constructing a dike and covering 
it with a high-strength fabric — 
geotextile — to keep it in place on 
the soft soil. An 8,000-foot dike of 
sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders 
taken from an underwater area 
upstream was constructed and 
500,000 square yards of geotextile 



34 




Alameda Naval Aviation 
Depot Plating Shop 



was then laid on the river bottom 
and over the dike. The geotextile, 
composed of polyester yarns with 
a tensile strength of 1,500 pounds 
per square inch, was put in place 
by a train of laying barges. 

This project is believed to be 
the largest underwater use of high- 
strength geotextile in the United 
States. Estimates suggest that the 
use of a cellular steel sheet pile — 
the traditional alternative to geo- 
textiles — would have cost six times 
more than this method. As the 
need for improved storage facilities 
for dredged material continues to 
grow, this project demonstrates 
the benefits — environmental as 
well as economic — to be gained 
from the considered use of new 
technologies and innovative engi- 
neering solutions. 

Credit 

Department of Defense, 

U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, 

Philadelphia District, Philadelphia, PA 




IVlaintaining the Navy's enormous 
fleet of aircraft in top operating 
condition requires quick access to 
a wide range of high-quality, high- 
performance replacement parts. The 
Naval Aviation Depot Plating Shop 
in Alameda, California, is a state- 
of-the-art facility that provides the 
Navy with replacement parts manu- 
factured and finished to exacting 
technical specifications. 

This $19.4 million facility inte- 
grates the functions and output of 
two forty-year old plating shops that 
had become obsolete, inefficient 
and environmentally compromised. 
Design strategies were developed 
that allowed 21 different metal 
finishing processes to be performed 
concurrently in an economical and 
timely fashion. In terms of productiv- 
ity, maintenance of quality standards 
and environmentally sound opera- 
tional practices, the Naval Aviation 
Depot Plating Shop serves as a 
model for future similar facilities. 
The production of these parts and 
specialty surfaces involves using 
many highly toxic substances. Along 
with improved efficiency and cost- 
effectiveness, an overriding goal of 
this project was managing these 
materials and eliminating environ- 
mental hazards at the site and to 
the surrounding communities. 

As a result of the design 
engineering process that went into 
the plating shop's construction, 
productivity at the plant increased 
by 10 percent, with an additional 
10 percent projected. During the 
plant's first two months of operation, 
parts rejection due to poor quality 
dropped 66 percent; daily waste 
water was reduced by a phenom- 
enal 97 percent; and the plant's 



utilities demand diminished by 
20 percent. 

The thoughtful and efficient 
implementation of a comprehensive 
design engineering plan allowed 
replacement of two outmoded and 
potentially dangerous facilities with a 
cost-effective, environmentally sound 
facility that will ensure the highest 
quality replacement parts for years 
to come. 




Credits 

Department of Defense, U.S. Navy, 
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 
Western Division, San Bruno, CA 

Koepf & Lange, Inc., Lafayette, CA 

Charles Davidoff Associates, 
Port Washington, NY 



35 



Engineering 



Mount St. Helens Long- 
Term Recovery Project 




The violent eruption of Mount 
St. Helens on May 1 8,1 980, created 
a variety of unstable conditions that 
threatened human safety and the 
navigability of the Toutle and 
Cowlitz Rivers. The Mount St. Helens 
Long-Term Recovery Project was a 
concerted response to correct and 
stabilize these dangerous conditions 
in a manner that was cost-effective 
and environmentally responsible. 

The plan involved creating 
a permanent outlet tunnel for Spirit 



Lake, constructing a sediment reten- 
tion structure on the Toutle River and 
dredging sediment from the Toutle 
and Cowlitz Rivers in Washington. 
By means of the innovative adapta- 
tion of existing technology, a new 
tunnel was dug despite complica- 
tions caused by continuing sedimen- 
tation. The tunnel provides secure 



36 




and effective flood prevention for 
downstream communities and has 
reduced Spirit Lake's level by 20 
feet. In 1985, construction began 
on a 184-foot sediment retention 
structure dam on the Toutle River; 
it was completed in 1989. 

This nine-year project is remark- 
able not only for the scope of its 
achievement but also for the timely 
and innovative response that it 
required to contend with the devas- 
tation caused by factors beyond 
human control. Potential designs 
to be employed in the project were 
fraught with unknown factors. Sedi- 
mentation and erosion rates and 
volumes had to be estimated with 
complex analytic and data-gathering 
methods. For the first time in the 
Army Corps' history, a sediment 
dam was designed not only to meet 
severe earthquake standards and 
maximum flood projections but also 
in anticipation of huge mud-slides. 

The Army Corps' timely and 
effective implementation of a mitiga- 
tion plan addressing both immediate 
and long-term dangers and con- 
cerns was exemplary in this case. 
That many of the designs and meth- 
odologies used in this project were 
developed under crisis conditions is 
a further testament to the extraordi- 
nary accomplishments evidenced by 
this recovery program. 

Credit 

Department of Defense, U.S. Army, 
Corps of Engineers, Portland District, 
Portland, OR 



Kings Bay 

Naval Submarine Base 



Tales of bureaucratic extravagance 
and wanton mismanagement are 
enough to make any citizen blanch 
at the thought of a ten-year, $1 .5 
billion dollar construction project 
being implemented and supervised 
by a federal agency. Yet just such a 
project, the design and construction 
of the Naval Submarine Base at 
King's Bay, Georgia, was completed 
ahead of schedule with final con- 
struction costs $300 million under 
budget. Crucial to the success of 



this mammoth project was the 
creative use of design expertise 
from the outset. A team of special- 
ists in design and construction 
worked across organizational lines 
to expedite the on-going construc- 
tion. The Design Division created a 
review process to ensure the overall 
uniformity of basic design criteria 
and specifications. A total of 383 
construction contracts varying in 
cost from $7,000 to $100 million 
were awarded. 




The 16,000-acre site supports 
ten TRIDENT II submarines, provid- 
ing repair and maintenance, storage 
and production facilities for TRIDENT 
D-5 missiles, and training, support, 
housing and recreational facilities 
for personnel. Apart from the base 
itself, the project included dredging 
a channel 500 feet wide and 22 
miles long, constructing 80 miles of 
roads and eight miles of railroad, 
and creating a power system. 

Throughout the project, con- 
struction managers were sensitive 
to environmental impact on the 
surrounding area. The facilities were 
integrated with the surrounding 
landscape, earth-fill sites were trans- 
formed into lakes that house indig- 
enous wildlife, and shallow areas 
were planted with marsh grasses 
as a part of wetland development 
requirements. In addition, creating 
and using a sophisticated computer 
model allowed more efficient dredg- 
ing of the channel and will reduce 
future maintenance dredging. The 
base now operates in the service of 
our national defense, while provid- 
ing a pleasant environment for its 
personnel and an economic boost 
for its host city. 

Credits 

Department of Defense, U.S. Navy, 
Officer in Charge of Construction, 
TRIDENT, Kings Bay, GA, and 
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 
Southern Division, Charleston, SC 



37 



Engineering 



Seismic Upgrade off 
Building B-111 



Viral Rickettsial 
Disease Laboratory 




In January of 1980, an earthquake 
struck Livermore, California, the 
home of the Lawrence Livermore 
National Laboratory. A post-quake 
assessment of the laboratory's infra- 
structure revealed serious seismic 
deficiencies in building B-111. 
A Request For Proposals to remedy 
the deficiencies drew responses from 
23 architecture and engineering 
firms. Following a short list of six 
firms culled from the initial field, two 
bidders were chosen to enter into a 
moderately funded design competi- 
tion that required both to produce 
six different schemes to accomplish 
the project goals. Selection of the 
winning solution was based on four 
criteria: minimizing disruption of the 



building's occupants, the economics 
of the plan, maximizing the seismic 
safety of the building, and enhanc- 
ing the aesthetics of the facility. 

The design called for construction 
of two external seven-story cast-in- 
place concrete support towers, to be 
erected in the building's courtyard. 
The towers were supported by a 
seven-foot thick concrete pier cap 
and a drilled concrete pier array. 
The tower connections to the existing 
building were achieved by running 
support structures through unused 
ceiling space above the second and 
seventh floors of B-111. 

This solution brilliantly reduced 
disruption to the occupants of the 
building. Since occupants were able 
to continue their work throughout 
the construction, there was no need 
to relocate them off-site, thus saving 
money and further reducing the cost 
of the project. 

By encouraging the development 
of alternate solutions through the 
use of a funded design competition, 
the Department of Energy was able 
to select a superior design that 
achieved project goals. The $6.2 
million project was completed on 
time, and the final cost came in 
$1 million below the government 
estimate. Moreover, workers believe 
that the support towers have 
enhanced the visual character of 
the courtyard. 

Credits 

Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore 
National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 

Forell/Elsesser Engineers, Inc., 
San Francisco, CA 

Ralph Larsen & Son, Inc., Burlingame, CA 



This new 95,000-square foot virol- 
ogy laboratory at the Centers for 
Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, 
Georgia, contains two primary 
laboratories: one built to general 
containment standards and one to 
maximum containment standards. 
The design and engineering philoso- 
phy of the project was not guided 
by a concern for normal operation 
but rather by a presupposition of 
"what if?" possibilities. What if a 
system fails? What if an accident 
occurs? This "what if?" approach 
led to series of duplicate systems 
that automatically back up the failed 
system and ensure worker safety 
without ceasing operations. 

One novel engineering innova- 
tion is the facility's air ventilation 
system. The system is based on 
controlled air flow, with increasingly 
negative air pressure in inner rooms, 
and the most negative airspace in 
the biosafety cabinets. Although the 
overriding concern was the contain- 
ment of biohazards that could 
endanger workers and the surround- 
ing community, user amenities also 
were given due consideration. Large 
internal windows between the labo- 
ratory and corridor provide natural 
lighting and relieve researchers 
from the impression of confinement 
without compromising containment 
from an external source. A six-story, 
110-foot high atrium separates the 
maximum containment laboratories 



38 




from the general containment 
areas, providing personnel with 
a lounge area and lunch room, 
thus minimizing traffic flow in and 
out of the building. 

Laboratory researchers were 
involved in design reviews, solution 
evaluation and all design-related 
decisions. This has led to increased 
satisfaction with the facility. As a 
result of this quality facility, the CDC 
can conduct vital research with the 
assurance that dangerous biological 
agents are not being released into 
the laboratory environment or the 
surrounding community. 




Credits 

Department of Health and Human 
Services, Centers for Disease Control, 
Engineering Service Office, Atlanta, GA 

STV/Sanders & Thomas, Pottstown, PA 



Spacecraft Systems 
Development and 
Integration Facility 

The Spacecraft Systems Develop- 
ment and Integration Facility in 
Greenbelt, Maryland, is used to 
prepare and integrate the largest 
payloads the space shuttle can 
carry. Because it can take as long 
as two years to get a payload ready 
for launch, the building was 
designed to accommodate two 
60-foot, 60,000-pound payloads 
simultaneously. 

The facility includes the world's 
largest horizontal laminar flow clean 
room for preparing the electronically 
sensitive cargoes. The immense 
size of the clean room, measuring 
1 25' by 1 00' with a ceiling height of 
95', prevented standard clean room 
engineering technology from being 
used, and innovative technical 
design solutions were employed 
throughout the facility. Among the 
innovations found in the new facility 
are the use of structural steel and 
lightweight wall panels that allow 
maintenance of pressure within the 
unusually large space, extra bracing 
and stiff support structures to mini- 
mize building drift, and specially 
designed expansion/contraction 
joints that permit the structure to 
flex without compromising the seal 
at the structure wall. 

Not only does the facility provide 
a state-of-the art clean room for 
technicians, but its innovative design 
also results in significant cost sav- 
ings. The use of a pressure control 
air handling unit instead of the 
commonly employed dual fans 
saved $500,000 in construction 
costs and will continue to save on 
operations and energy costs. The 
room's pressurization air unit intro- 
duces conditioned outside air into 
the overhead plenum to a positive 



pressure within the clean room. 
This positive pressure causes any air 
leaks to flow out of the room rather 
than into it, thus further reducing the 
risk of contamination. 

The innovative design and engi- 
neering employed in the construc- 
tion of this facility ensures that the 
Spacecraft Systems Development 
and Integration Facility is prepared 
to make vital and lasting contribu- 
tions to our national space program 
well into the next century. 

Credits 

National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, Goddard Space Flight 
Center, Facilities Engineering Division, 
Greenbelt, MD 

STV/Sanders & Thomas, Pottstown, PA 



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39 



Engineering 



Fast Flux Test Facility 




Used to test full-sized nuclear fuels, 
materials and components for ad- 
vanced nuclear power systems, the 
Fast Flux Test Facility in Richland, 
Washington, is a complex of build- 
ings and equipment arranged 
around a reactor containment 
building that houses a nuclear 
reactor. The facility is the only U.S. 
liquid metal reactor built and main- 
tained to the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers' codes and 
is also the only Department of 
Energy reactor ever to undergo 
and pass the Nuclear Regulatory 
Commission's rigorous Technical 
Safety Review. 

Designed to provide irradiation 
testing of variously sized compo- 
nents, demonstrate the ability to 
operate nuclear power systems in 
space for up to ten years, and pro- 
duce isotopes for industrial and 
medical applications, this facility 
provides an unsurpassed opportunity 
to obtain experimental results faster 



than was previously possible. The 
reactor's design provides an acceler- 
ated environment for testing fuels 
and materials, and adjacent labora- 
tories can quickly open and examine 
test assemblies as well as perform 
chemical and metallurgical analy- 
ses. Additionally, the reactor has 
established a remarkable perfor- 
mance record to date, remaining 
operationally ready at least 98 
percent of the time. 

Design improvements developed 
from experiments performed at the 
facility have enabled engineers to 
produce 50 percent more energy 
than was producible using previously 
employed methods and materials. 
These tests have further demon- 
strated the potential for future reac- 
tors to operate for five to ten years 
without refuelling, an assertion 
previously debatable. 

Credits 

Department of Energy, Richland Field 
Office, Richland, Washington 

Westinghouse Hanford Company, 
Richland, WA 

Bechtel Group Inc., San Francisco, CA 




Metered Analysis 

for Building Operation 

and Maintenance 

Often the most dramatic successes 
result from the simplest ideas. In 
1 986, the Department of Energy 
entered into a delegation agreement 
with the General Services Adminis- 
tration to operate the James Forrestal 
Federal Office Building in Washing- 
ton, DC. One benefit of this 
arrangement was the opportunity 
to develop an effective energy con- 
servation program for the building. 
This program now serves as a model 
for other federal buildings. 

An elegantly simple computer 
program was designed that allows 
users to enter information on a 
building's day-to-day energy con- 
sumption and then compare the 
consumption against ideal expecta- 
tions. The Metered Analysis program 
displays the data in charts that 
demonstrate the building's actual 
consumption against what it should 
be. This information allows building 
managers to pinpoint flaws in their 
energy systems such as malfunction- 
ing equipment, waste or misuse, 
and then make corrections. 

Implemented for a cost of 
$20,000, the program paid for 
itself in energy savings within one 
month. During its first 12 months in 
operation the program resulted in a 
34 percent, or $260,000, reduction 
in energy expenses and has contin- 
ued to save as much or more during 
every subsequent year, resulting in 
more than $1 million in savings. 
Feasibility studies have shown that 
this technique can easily be adapted 
to other federal buildings and could 
result in $200 million in energy 
savings annually. 

For all of its success, the Metered 
Analysis program requires no spe- 
cial equipment or capital expendi- 



40 



Hospital Building System 



tures. The technique is so simple 
that it can run on a standard 
spreadsheet program and can be 
used by in-house personnel. The 
successful application of the pro- 
gram demonstrates that improving 
government efficiency and cost- 
effectiveness does not itself require 
massive financial outlays but rather 
innovative thinking that empowers 
employees to locate and solve 
problems themselves. 



U.S.D.O.E. FORRESTAL BUILDING 

STEAM it ELECTRICITY USE (1966-1989) 




68 69 



U.S.D.O.E. FORRESTAL BUILDING 

HISTORICAL STEAM USAGE (10/84-8/90) 





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to 

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Credit 

Department of Energy, 
Engineering Facilities Division, 
Washington, DC 




The Department of Veterans Affairs 
Hospital Building System is a highly- 
disciplined design and construction 
methodology developed to stem 
rising construction costs, unaccept- 
ably long periods between hospital 
programming and occupancy, rapid 
facility obsolescence and poor build- 
ing performance. 

The success of the system in 
reducing factors that adversely affect 
construction costs as well as patient 
care derives from the development 
of standardized, three-dimensional 
planning and service modules. 
These modular building configura- 
tions are applied repetitively, yet they 
easily accommodate the program- 
matic, siting and aesthetic require- 
ments of specific projects. One story 
high and comprised of an assembly 
of sub-systems capable of various 
functional arrangements, each mod- 
ule is served by a single, indepen- 
dent distribution network, thus mak- 
ing it a unit of service as well as a 
unit of functional space. Each mod- 
ule is organized into three basic 
components: the functional zone 
below the ceiling, the service or 
interstitial space above the ceiling 
and the service bay of full-story 
height located at the boundary. 



This modular system and its 
accompanying design methodology 
are used in the construction of 
all new VA hospitals. The system 
has provided more useable floor 
area and flexibility in the use of 
building space, reduced construction 
costs and allowed earlier facility 
occupancy, and provided for easier 
access for maintenance of the 
building's systems with less inter- 
ruption of patient care. 

The Department of Veterans 
Affairs has clearly risen to the chal- 
lenge of providing increased service 
at minimal expense, and the Hospi- 
tal Building System is an efficient 
and disciplined example of the 
benefits that can be gained through 
the use of a sound, cohesive design 
methodology. 




Credits 

Department of Veterans Affairs, 
Office of Facilities, Washington, DC 

Stone Marraccini Patterson, Architects, 
San Francisco, CA 

Ehrenkrantz & Eckstut Architects, 
New York, NY 

Rutherford & Chekene, Engineers, 
San Francisco, CA 

Hayakawa Associates, Engineers, 
Los Angeles, CA 



41 



Product/Industrial Design 



STU-III Program 



Articulated 
Anthropometric Robot 



This program represents a unique, 
on-going initiative undertaken by 
the National Security Agency (NSA) 
to improve and ensure the availabil- 
ity of a secure telecommunications 
system for U.S. government officials. 
Prior to its introduction in 1987, 
U.S. protection of classified and 
sensitive telecommunications was 
woefully inadequate. Through an 
innovative public/private partner- 
ship, the STU-III program has 
restored the needed level of security 
to government communications at 
a fraction of the cost of the system 
it replaced. 

STU-lll's objective, first delineated 
in 1984, was to rapidly design and 




introduce a new generation of 
secure phones that would be com- 
pact, easy-to-use and capable of 
operating in a secure or non-secure 
manner over public phone systems. 
The NSA contacted several major 
U.S. telecommunications companies 
and requested proposals for a low- 
cost secure phone system. Four 
companies were ultimately selected 
to design and manufacture separate 
versions of the new system. Each 
vendor model had to be compatible 
and interchangeable with the others, 
but the companies were free to 
incorporate specific convenience 
features. 

During development, the NSA 
hosted numerous conferences of 
secure phone users, and the feed- 
back generated by these contributed 
substantially to the success of the 
designs. By embarking on a public/ 
private venture, the NSA was able to 
reduce the cost of its secure phone 
units from $1 5,000 to $35,000 per 
secure unit to only $2,000 per unit. 
This program has established a 
viable procurement protocol for 
design and development that may 
lead to further savings in the future. 

Credits 

Department of Defense, 
National Security Agency, Information 
Systems Security Organization, 
Fort Meade, MD 

AT&T Bell Laboratories Division, 
North Andover, MA 

Motorola, Inc. Government Electronics 
Group, Scottsdale, AZ 

GE Aerospace Government 
Communications, Camden, NJ 

GTE Government Systems Corporation, 
Waltham, MA 




At the Army's Dugway Proving 
Ground in Utah, equipment used by 
the armed forces undergoes rigor- 
ous testing and evaluation to deter- 
mine its safety, efficacy and reliabil- 
ity. Protective clothing and products 
are tested under extreme conditions 
that are so severe that they preclude 
the use of human subjects for fear of 
harm or injury. "Manney," an articu- 
lated anthropometric robot, was 
designed and produced to assist in 
evaluating equipment where the risk 
to human subjects was too great. 

Manney is capable of mimicking 
human actions and responses both 
physically and physiologically. Using 
fifteen different joints, the robot can 
simulate complex human move- 
ments such as walking, crawling, 
squatting and lifting. It can also 
integrate typical physiological 
responses to these actions by simu- 
lating changes in skin temperature, 



42 



Interior Design 



Metre West 
Day Care Center 



perspiration and breathing. Physi- 
ological parameters and desired 
movements can be programmed 
off-line through a graphics proces- 
sor so the complex test scenarios 
can be assembled and verified on- 
screen prior to activating the robot. 
The robot is controlled remotely, 
thus protecting its operators from 
test conditions. 

While this project is commend- 
able for its success in translating 
complex bio-mechanic data into a 
functioning automaton, its true value 
and contribution will lie in the added 
safety that will result from the tests 
it performs — information that may 
save lives in the future. 




Credits 

Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest 
Laboratory, Richland, WA 

Department of Defense, U.S. Army, 
Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, UT 



One of the most acute needs for 
today's workforce is quality day 
care facilities. A recently completed 
1 1 ,000-square-foot day care center 
in the Social Security Administration 
(SSA) complex in Baltimore is an 
example of creative design being 
used to meet a pressing social need. 

The design of the Metro West 
Day Care Center grew from a col- 
laborative effort between the 
project's principal designers and 
representatives from the SSA's facili- 
ties staff, local day care providers 
and child care consultants. The 
designers had to work within the 
confines of a tightly constrained 
existing space that offered only a 
single source of natural light along 
one wall. 

The center of the design is an 
open, unobstructed "commons 
area" intended for group play and 
communal projects. Off the com- 
mons area are several smaller class- 
rooms where different age groups 
can assemble for specific instruction 
or age-appropriate play. The hall- 
mark of the design is the light and 
airy character of the classrooms and 
commons area; all of the center's 
interior partition walls are pen- 
etrated by numerous windows in 
different sizes and at different 
heights, and it is this profusion of 
windows that dissolves the partition 
walls, providing views into other 
rooms and enhancing the sense of 
spaciousness. Windows also serve to 
allow more natural light to reach the 





center of the space than would 
otherwise be possible. The center is 
further enlivened by brightly colored 
surfaces and bold geometric forms. 
It was designed with durability and 
safety firmly in mind, and all floor 
and wall materials are extremely 
tough, non-toxic and easily cleaned. 

The Metro West Day Care 
Center, designed and constructed 
for $ 1 25 per square foot, is an 
excellent model that demonstrates 
a paradigm for future day care 
centers in other federal as well as 
private office buildings. 

Credits 

Department of Health and Human 
Services, Social Security Administration, 
Baltimore, MD 

Leo A Daly, Washington, DC 

Downtown Baltimore Child Care Inc., 
Baltimore, MD 



43 



Graphic Design 



Imperishable Beauty: 
Pictures Printed in Collotype 
Catalogue 




A catalogue documenting a 1988 
exhibition mounted at the National 
Museum of American History's 
Hall of Printing and Graphic Arts, 
Imperishable Beauty: Pictures Printed 
in Collotype, is characterized by 
refined graphic design. Proving that 
informed design is often as much 
the result of what is left out as of 
what is put in, this catalogue strikes 
a gentle balance between its own 
formal qualities and those of its 
subject matter. 

Collotypes are photographic 
pictures printed in ink from a gela- 
tin-coated plate. This process yields 
images with remarkably subtle shad- 
ings and richly delicate grey tones. 
Many of the images represented in 
the exhibition, as well as some of 

Credits 

Smithsonian Institution, 

National Museum of American History, 

Washington, DC 

Jonathon Nix, Dalton, MA 



those reproduced in the catalogue, 
evoke a timeless, ethereal quality 
that attests to the power of this 
unique medium. 

Much of what makes this cata- 
logue exemplary can be attributed 
to the designer's attention to detail. 
From the selection of the paper stock 
to the unusual use of endpapers and 
vellum frontispiece, every element 
was carefully considered for its im- 
pact on the whole. The classical- 
inspired typography is in keeping 
with the tone of the collotype images 
and is highly legible without being 
overly intrusive. The judicious alloca- 
tion of white space, the scale of the 
images and the pacing of the cata- 
logue combine to make this a publi- 
cation that, despite its modest 24 
pages, is grand in its achievement. 

Produced on a budget of just 
$8,871 in donated funds, Imperish- 
able Beauty: Pictures Printed in 
Collotype advances the standards 
of federal design and provides the 
public with an exquisite and highly 
informative document that sheds 
new light on a fascinating artistic 
process. 



Voyager at Neptune 
Poster 



The National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration's (NASA's) 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory regularly 
engages in design activities aimed 
at investing the public with a sense 
of participation in the laboratory's 
mission of acquiring scientific and 
technical knowledge. Following the 
publication of Voyager at Neptune: 
1989 (described on page 45) 
informing the public of the Voyager 
spacecraft's impending encounter 
with Neptune, the laboratory's 
design staff produced a poster to 
help convey the importance of the 
mission and make some of its results 
tangible. 

The focus of this 24" x 36" poster 
is an image of Neptune. The central- 
ity of the image, together with the 




44 



Voyager at Neptune: 1989 



fact that is was taken by the Voy- 
ager, dramatically reinforces the 
value of this mission. The sparse 
use of contemporary typography in 
conjunction with the full-bleed image 
of the planet results in a striking and 
elegant visual statement. The poster 
was produced in-house at the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory for 85 cents 
per copy on a computer system that 
automatically generated the typog- 
raphy and mechanical art. 

The poster enhances the appre- 
ciation of the mission of both the 
Voyager and the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory. It represents a significant 
break with long-standing precedents 
and visual cliches established 
decades ago at the infancy of our 
space program. 

Credits 

National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration, Jet Propulsion 

Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 

Will Sherwood, Valencia, CA 



The Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
published Voyager at Neptune: 
1989, to reintroduce the public to 
Voyager's mission to explore Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and 
to specifically prepare them for 
Voyager's encounter with Neptune. 
This handsome brochure sets a 
standard of design excellence and 
restraint rarely seen in government 
publications. 

The Space Act of 1958 requires 
the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA) to provide 
"the widest applicable and appropri- 
ate dissemination of information" 
to the public concerning its activities. 
In keeping with this mandate, 
Voyager at Neptune: 1989, clearly 
and elegantly conveys the import of 
Voyager's 12-year, 4.5 billion-mile 
odyssey. The brochure covers the 
background of Voyager's mission, 
the history of the discovery of Nep- 
tune and what scientific knowledge 
may be gained from the mission. 





Because the brochure was 
published in advance of the space- 
craft's encounter with Neptune, its 
designers had to be resourceful in 
their use of imagery as the mission 
obviously had not yet produced 
new pictures of the planet. Art for 
the brochure was scanned, repro- 
duced and taken from copyright 
free sources. 

Without relying on flashy visuals, 
the brochure's design conveys a 
restrained elegance that is entirely in 
keeping with its instructive purpose. 
The judicious choice of imagery and 
its thoughtful layout make Voyager 
at Neptune: 1989 a document of 
lasting value that already has 
proved itself to be highly successful. 

Credits 

National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration, Jet Propulsion 

Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 

Curry Design, Inc., Venice, CA 



45 



Graphic Design 



Space Suit Wall Sheet 



Map Projections Poster 



The National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration's (NASA's) 
Educational Affairs Division devel- 
oped an almost life-size wall sheet 
of a man in a spacesuit as an in- 
structional aid for students across 
the country that identifies in a clear 
and uncluttered manner the major 
components and functions of a 
modern astronaut's space suit. 

Children are naturally fascinated 
with space and astronauts, and the 
Space Suit Wall Sheet capitalizes 
on this interest by using it to help 
convey technological advances and 
scientific principles relevant to space 
suit design. The bold, colorful imag- 
ery is eyecatching and the material 
intellectually engaging. The 36" x 



56" size makes a striking impact that 
has proven successful with children 
and teachers alike. 

Rather than hire an illustrator 
to draw the imagery, NASA commis- 
sioned an artist to paint a large 
original painting of a man in a 
space suit which was then repro- 
duced for the wall sheet. The origi- 
nal painting is now part of the NASA 
art collection. 

Credits 

National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, Educational Affairs 
Division, Washington, DC 

White + Associates, Los Angeles, CA 

Bruce Wolf, Piedmont, CA 



lap Projections 

~r 





When properly focused, the skill 
of a talented designer can transform 
complex information and technical 
data into readily accessible concepts 
that demystify arcane subject matter. 
The Map Projections Poster is an 
excellent example of the graphic 
design process used to simplify and 
communicate a difficult topic. This 
two-sided 24" x 36" poster, aimed 
at high school and junior college 
students, is part of the Geological 
Survey's initiative for educational 
outreach to students. 

On the front of the poster is 
a reproduction of a woodcut by 
Gerardus Mercator, the sixteenth- 
century geographer credited as the 
founder of modern cartography. 
The large image helps to draw 
attention to the poster's subject, 
which is outlined briefly at the top. 
The reverse of the poster clearly 
defines and illustrates 1 7 different 
systems of cartographic projections. 

The poster's logical lay-out, 
succinct definitions and superb 



Atlas of Eastern Europe 



illustrations make such obscure 
terms as Lambert Azimuthal Equal 
Area and Bipolar Oblique Conic 
Conformal intelligible to students 
and adults alike. In presenting differ- 
ent ways of representing land areas, 
the poster also addresses how differ- 
ent modes of representation color 
our perceptions of geography. 
Technical details and scientific jar- 
gon have been handled in a creative 
fashion that makes the subject 
appealing and accessible without 
trivializing its importance. 

Credits 

Department of the Interior, 
Geological Survey, National Mapping 
Division, Reston, VA 

Chaparos Productions, Washington, DC 



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ATLAS OF 
EASTERN 
EUROPE 



In this time of dramatic change 
and on-going political evolution 
in Eastern Europe, the need for a 
concise and up-to-date reference 
atlas has rarely been more acute. 
Responding to this need, the Central 
Intelligence Agency produced a 
rich compendium of relevant data 
profiling the component states of 
Eastern Europe. In content and 
design, this atlas sets new standards 
for cartography. 

As a result of close collaboration 
between the graphic designer and 
seven cartographers, large amounts 
of data, a variety of graphic ele- 
ments, and the specific cartographic 
requirements of the map makers are 
accommodated in a design that is 
clear and easy to read. 

The production team employed 
a number of highly innovative pub- 
lishing strategies. All of the page 
spreads and map elements were 
developed on-line, enabling the 
charts and the majority of the line 
art for the maps to be generated 




electronically using available soft- 
ware. The system also ensured 
absolute consistency in the position- 
ing of each graphic element, even 
though as many as three cartogra- 
phers were involved in the produc- 
tion of a given page. Master layout 
grids were developed to accommo- 
date the wide variety of visual and 
descriptive material included on 
each page. 

Encompassing the geography, 
demography, economy, and histori- 
cal boundaries of the region, along 
with factors such as energy and 
pollution, the atlas provides a valu- 
able and informative overview of 
the dynamics at work in the region 
in a visually compelling format. 

Credit 

Central Intelligence Agency, 
Cartography, Design & Publishing Group, 
Washington, DC 



47 



Graphic Design 



Rauschenberg Overseas 
Cultural Interchange 
Catalogue 

This catalogue documents an exhi- 
bition that represents the culmina- 
tion of six years of international 
travel by artist Robert Rauschenberg 
as part of the Rauschenberg Over- 
seas Cultural Interchange (ROCI). 
The artist's intention was to contrib- 
ute to world peace and understand- 
ing through the universal language 
of art. To that end, Mr. Rauschen- 
berg visited eleven countries where 
he explored their cities and country- 
sides, gathering images and materi- 
als while exchanging ideas with 
other artists and craftspeople. The 
artist drew on his experiences and 
impressions of each stop to create 
works of art inspired by their distinct 
characteristics. 

While the ROCI catalogue is 
first and foremost a document of 
the exhibition and a showcase for 
Rauschenberg's latest work, it also 
serves to disseminate the artist's 
vision of cross-cultural understand- 
ing by making this project accessible 
to a wider audience than was 



-h&f-*- 





reached by the exhibition alone. 
The catalogue is marked through- 
out by superb typography, color 
reproductions of the artist's work 
produced to exacting standards, 
and evocative narrative passages 
written by prominent cultural figures 
representing countries on the ROCI 
itinerary. 

The quality that perhaps most 
distinguishes this catalogue from 
those documenting other exhibitions 
is the presence of the voice and 
vision of the artist on every page. 
This resulted from the on-going 
collaboration between the artist 
and the catalogue's designer, 
editor, exhibition curator and the 
artist's representatives throughout 
the production of the catalogue. 

Credits 

National Gallery of Art, 
Editors Office, Washington, DC 

Robert Rauschenberg, 
Captiva Island, FL 



Sequoia and 
Kings Canyon Road 
Character Guidelines 

Our national parks, often thought 
of as pristine wilderness, are actually 
the products of design. To accom- 
modate the influx of visitors into 
these wild preserves, an infrastruc- 
ture of roads, visitor's centers, and 
signage has to be developed to ease 
movement through the parks while 
preventing damage to the wilderness 
areas. Every park has its own distinct 
character, and each and every man- 
made element introduced into the 
park needs to be in keeping with 
that character. 

The Road Character Guidelines 
book is part of a series of docu- 
ments developed by the National 
Park Service to guide the future 
design of the Sequoia and Kings 
Canyon National Parks. The book 
provides construction guidelines 
according to the principles of rustic 
design, which were used in the early 
years of the parks' development. 
As virtually every road and major 
developed area will be redeveloped 
over the next 20 years, these guide- 
lines will be of enormous help in 
maintaining a harmonious and 
unified character throughout the 
course of the renovations. 



ROAD 

CM \K "kCTER 

GU1DI I l\l S 

SI QUO! \ & 
KINGS i. Wu>\ 

nationa] Parks 



48 



Publishing 
Consultant Program 



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In format, the guidelines are 
coherent and well-organized. In 
concept, layout and execution, the 
book has a "rustic" quality that 
sparks our image of national parks. 
Palatino typeface, a speckletone 
cover and glue binding with taped 
edge are used, and each book is 
printed on recycled paper to demon- 
strate concern for natural resources 
and draw parallels between the 
book and the trees that the parks 
were established to protect. 

These guidelines to mastering 
principles of rustic design are a 
model to be emulated in other 
parks. Several park managers are 
considering using the book to direct 
their own infrastructure redevelop- 
ment programs and have used it in 
design training sessions as the basis 
for establishing other park-related 
design guidelines. 

Credits 

Department of the Interior, 

National Park Service, Denver Service 

Center, Lakewood, CO 

Corson Design, San Francisco, CA 



The General Accounting Office 
publishes hundreds of documents 
and reports each year that are 
used by elected officials and public 
employees to help formulate govern- 
ment policy. Acknowledging that 
even the best information is useless 
if not clearly organized and pre- 
sented, the GAO initiated a new 
program in its publishing depart- 
ment to foster consistent standards 
of graphic excellence in its printed 
products. 

Using in-house staff, the GAO 
first developed its own graphic- 
standards software that is accessible 
to everyone and dramatically simpli- 
fies the steps required to include 
charts and graphs in texts. Then, 
it physically and organizationally 
placed the agency's design profes- 
sionals among the authors of the 
GAO reports. Since the program's 
inception, the ability of the GAO 
authors to use visuals effectively 
and appropriately in their reports 
has increased, production has been 
streamlined and publishing costs 
reduced. Non-standard visuals have 
all but disappeared, providing a 
consistent identity for the agency. 

In practical terms, creating one 
graph before the implementation 
of the program cost either 1-2 hours 
of in-house production time or a 
minimum of $125 in outside vendor 
service. Now, that same graph can 
be generated in-house in less than 
fifteen minutes at any PC worksta- 
tion. Because designers now work 
among the authors, problems can 
be identified and corrected at the 
outset instead of at the last minute, 
and authors have come to better 



understand the design process and 
the appropriate use of illustrative 
devices. 

Under the Publishing Consultant 
Program, some 80 percent of the 
GAO's production requirements are 
met through its automated software, 
freeing up its graphic designers for 
thornier design problems and spe- 
cial projects. But the tangible success 
of this program lies in its published 
products — which are now clearer, 
more persuasive and easier to read. 




Credit 

General Accounting Office, 

Office of Information Management & 

Communications, Washington, DC 



49 



Graphic Design 



Ellis Island Immigration 
Museum Exhibits 




Ellis Island holds a special place in 
the collective minds of Americans, 
both as a historic site and as a na- 
tional symbol. More than 100 million 
Americans can trace their ancestors 
to immigrants who entered a new 
life in the United States from this 
island. The comprehensive design of 
the Ellis Island Immigration Museum 
Exhibits reflects the island's impor- 
tance and provides a link with a 
significant portion of the American 
populace. 

The exhibits document not only 
the story of those who journeyed to 
America in search of a new life but 
also the odyssey of the island itself, 
from bustling center to abandoned 
shell and, finally, to a restored 
museum. Notable for their historical 
and scholarly accuracy in depicting 
the lives of those who passed 
through the island, the exhibits are 

Credits 

Department of the Interior, 

National Park Service, 

Harpers Ferry Center, 

Harpers Ferry, VA, and 

Statue of Liberty National Monument, 

New York, NY 

MetaForm Incorporated, New York, NY 



composed of historical photographs, 
the words of the immigrants them- 
selves, and an extraordinary array 
of their personal possessions 
donated to the museum by their 
descendants to evoke these experi- 
ences. The result is a museum that 
speaks through the voice of its sub- 
jects with a spontaneity and vitality 
that reflects the building's original 
purpose even as it expands the story 
beyond Ellis Island to include the 
transformation of America. 

Public participation was the 
definitive element in forming the 



design of the exhibits. The response 
from immigrants and their descen- 
dants to a national appeal for arti- 
facts associated with Ellis Island 
snowballed into a unique form of 
widespread involvement in the 
project and ultimately shaped the 
character of several of the exhibits. 
By any measure, the Ellis Island 
Immigration Museum Exhibits have 
been an enormous success, becom- 
ing the second most popular tourist 
attraction in the United States, with 
more than a million visitors during 
the first eight months of operation. 




50 



"Windows Through Time' 
Exhibit 



Always looked through but often 
overlooked themselves, windows are 
an architectural feature as important 
to historic buildings as are their 
facades, porticoes and cornices. 
Changes in the appearance and 
construction of American windows 
over the past three centuries encap- 
sulate the history of technological 
innovation and the evolution of 
architectural design during this time. 
Yet despite the amount of historical 
significance vested in windows, 
historic windows have been sacri- 
ficed at an alarming rate since the 
energy crisis of the 1970s, which 
spurred a movement for their 
replacement. 

Concerned with the conse- 
quences of wholesale, insensitive 
replacement of original windows in 
historic buildings, the National Park 
Service launched a series of initia- 
tives to promote public appreciation 
of these cultural resources and en- 
courage appropriate steps that will 
allow their preservation. "Windows 
Through Time" is a traveling exhibit 
that presents 25 windows and 30 
related objects as the conscious 
products of design. Dating from the 
1630s through the 1930s, each 
window is carefully described along 
with its history and the technology 
employed to create it. 

Because of high costs and logisti- 
cal constraints, large architectural 





exhibits rarely travel to the extent 
that "Windows Through Time" has; 
it has been viewed by more than 
50,000 people in four Northeastern 
cities. The innovative design of 
"Windows Through Time" consists 
of off-the-shelf scaffolding that al- 
lows the objects to be displayed — 
many of the windows are too heavy 
to be wall mounted — while at the 
same time evoking a sense of con- 
struction and preservation issues 
related to their installation. 



Credits 

Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Mid-Atlantic Regional Office, 
Philadelphia, PA, and Preservation 
Assistance Division, Washington, DC 

Carol Gerson Design, Washington, DC 

Berg Design, Albany, NY 

Harbrook, Albany, NY 

Jan Hird Pokorny, Architects and Planners, 
New York, NY 

Historic Preservation Foundation, 
Washington, DC 



51 



Graphic Design 



U.S. Information Agency 
International Exhibits 
1987-1990 

The U.S. Information Agency (USIA) 
has consistently employed good 
design as a tool in fostering cultural 
exchange and communication in 
its traveling exhibits and collateral 
materials. These exhibits, which 
travel to many foreign countries, 
help promote awareness of Ameri- 
can society and its values and forge 
paths of understanding often in 
places where information about 
America and its people and culture 
is lacking. The USIA Exhibits Service 
has a strong track record of creating 
lively and informative exhibits 
that achieve the highest possible 
aesthetic and intellectual results at 
minimum cost. 

The USIA has employed design 
productively in both the graphic 
design of its exhibits and in their 
physical configuration. For the 
agency's large-scale multimedia 
displays, in-house staff develop 
presentation concepts assisted by 




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vmrnxbc >ixrxiwr *i 



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a panel of outside design profes- 
sionals from relevant disciplines. 
The staff then review the portfolios 
submitted by a number of design 
firms to select the team that best 
combines technical and aesthetic 
expertise with cost efficiency. 
Recently, the Exhibits Service also 
developed a new series of displays 
to meet the growing need for small, 
low budget exhibits that typically 
travel to posts where the technical 
support staff is inadequate to mount 
a larger, multi-media show. These 
small-scale exhibits have been 
designed to be lightweight, durable 
and low-maintenance structures that 
require no special knowledge of 
equipment to assemble and display. 



Recently mounted exhibits attest 
to the scope and vitality of its offer- 
ings. Shows such as "Design USA," 
"Creative Computers," "Farming 
for the Future" and "Sport and Its 
Science" have drawn tremendous 
audiences worldwide. "Design USA, 
which traveled to eight cities 
throughout the former Soviet Union, 
was viewed by 250,000 visitors 
at one stop alone. The designs of 
the USIA's Exhibits Service are to 
be commended for their content 
and presentation of America to 
the peoples of the world. 

Credit 

U.S. Information Agency, Exhibits Service, 
Washington, DC 



52 



Escondido Civic Center 
Signage and 
Graphics Program 

In 1984, the Design Arts Program 
of the National Endowment for the 
Arts provided funding for a design 
competition to create a master plan 
for a new civic center in Escondido, 
California. The competition process 
that led to an appropriate design 
for the civic center buildings was 
also used to select a firm to develop 
a signage and graphics system for 
the center. By turning to the competi- 
tion process, the city and its residents 
sought a visual communications 
program in harmony with its archi- 
tecture. 

The resulting program for 
Escondido Civic Center's signage 



and graphics stands out in contrast 
to the ineffectual, insensitive and 
visually intrusive graphics that result 
from a piecemeal approach. The 
program, which includes all aspects 
of public signage from outdoor signs 
and door plaques to wayfinding 
maps and informational signage, 
is notable not only for its compre- 
hensive integration of graphics 
and signage, but also for its appro- 
priateness and elegance. 

The designers have carefully 
considered the effect that the 
signage will have on the civic 
center's architecture, in terms of 
scale and visual impact. Where 





appropriate, signs have been made 
to be subtle, yet legible, often with 
graphic elements that highlight 
predominant features of the archi- 
tecture. The taste and discretion 
exercised in designing and imple- 
menting this signage program re- 
sults in a system that achieves clarity 
and impact without overstatement. 

While laudable on aesthetic 
terms, this signage program also 
dispatches its responsibility with 
great success. Any signage system 
must first and foremost make a 
place intelligible to the user, and 
the Escondido Civic Center has, by 
force of this signage program, been 
made highly accessible to the public. 

Credits 

National Endowment for the Arts, 
Design Arts Program, Washington, DC 

City of Escondido, Escondido, CA 

Nicholson Design, Encinitas, CA 



53 



Landscape Architecture 



Charleston 
Waterfront Park 



Massachusetts 
National Cemetery 




For cities that border on lakes and 
rivers, "redeveloping the waterfront" 
has become a cliche of modern 
urban planning, as if their develop- 
ment alone offers a panacea to 
urban blight and depressed eco- 
nomic vitality. Successful waterfront 
development, however, depends on 
a number of factors that include 
clearly articulated project goals, 
sensitivity to context and substantial 
public input. The Charleston Water- 
front Park, on the Cooper River in 
Charleston, SC, stands out as an 
example of what a city can do with 
its waterfront resources as part of a 
broader vision. 

In its simplicity, modesty and 
respect for its context, the Charleston 
Waterfront Park has successfully 
integrated a previously derelict 
waterfront with the urban fabric it 




borders. This was accomplished 
through a three-tiered design strat- 
egy that is the organizing principle 
of the park. Along the river bank is 
a 1,200-foot promenade, affording 
sweeping views of the Cooper River 
and historic Fort Sumter on the 
opposite bank. Jutting out into the 
river is the 400-foot-long Vendue 
Wharf, which terminates in a 300- 
foot fishing pier. These features 
provide for maximum access and 
enjoyment of the river. 

The next tier is a series of exten- 
sive open lawn areas that provide 
room for picnicking and other out- 
door activities. Last is a series of 
more intimate gardens and seating 
areas; these "outdoor rooms" recall 
the private gardens of Charleston's 
grand residences. A network of 
shaded walkways connects the 
gardens and provides a subtle tran- 
sition from the park areas to the 
downtown streets surrounding it. 

Credits 

Department of Housing & Urban Develop- 
ment, Columbia Office, Columbia, SC 

City of Charleston, Parks Department, 
Charleston, SC 

Sasaki Associates, Inc., Watettown, MA 

Edward Pinckney, Charleston, SC 



The Massachusetts National Cem- 
etery in Bourne represents the har- 
monious integration of rigid techni- 
cal requirements and high aesthetic 
standards appropriate to the final 
resting place of New England's 
dead veterans. Located on a 760- 
acre site on Cape Cod, the cemetery 
is the first regional cemetery in New 
England. The primary goals of the 
cemetery development were to pre- 
serve the rugged beauty of the land- 
scape while maximizing the number 
of gravesites. 

The design features open burial 
fields reminiscent of Civil War cem- 
eteries and typical landscape fea- 
tures of rural New England — mead- 
ows, pastures, orchards of indig- 
enous trees, stone walls and winding 
lanes. These elements serve the dual 
purpose of enhancing the natural 
beauty of the land and simplifying 
maintenance. Geological complica- 
tions at the site, such as large sub- 
strata boulders and soil quality 
inadequate to support the intended 
expanses of lawn, required innova- 
tive problem solving. Boulders that 
would have prevented the digging of 



54 




Landscape Architecture 
Fellowship Program 



gravesites were excavated and deftly 
employed as features of the land- 
scape. Instead of importing vast 
quantities of off-site loam to enrich 
the soil, a cheaper alternative was 
found in the residue from a local 
sand and gravel operation. Both of 
these inventive solutions helped keep 
the cost of the project well within its 
projected budget. 

While the planning mandate 
was to provide as many burial sites 
as possible, the design of the Mas- 
sachusetts National Cemetery is one 
of stunning natural beauty instilled 
with an aura of spiritual reverence. 
The planning and design of this 
project has resulted in an approach 
that balances optimum use of the 
land and respectful stewardship of 
its natural resources. This dignified, 
regionally expressive cemetery 
serves as a standard against which 
future VA cemeteries will be judged. 

Credits 

Department of Veterans Affairs, 
Office of Facilities, Washington, DC 

Carol R. Johnson & Associates, Inc., 
Cambridge, MA 




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The American Academy in Rome 
is a unique institution dedicated to 
enriching the quality of cultural and 
public life in the United States. The 
academy provides extraordinary 
opportunities for research, artistic 
creation and reflection for artists, 
designers, historians, architects and 
landscape architects. Founded in 
1 894 and chartered by an Act of 
Congress in 1 905, the academy 
has nurtured generations of fellows, 
fostering an intellectual environment 
that allows them to explore the 
furthest reaches of their talent. For 
25 years, the Design Arts Program 
of the National Endowment for 
the Arts — in pursuing its mission 
to foster design excellence — has 
helped fund the academy's land- 
scape architecture fellowships, 
which were established by Frederick 
Law Olmsted and Ferruccio Vitale 
in 1915. 

Academy fellows have had 
enormous impact on the urban 
fabric of American cities, designing 
some of our most widely known and 
best-loved monuments and parks. 
The Statue of Liberty Park, the mas- 
ter plans for the 1 933 Century of 
Progress and 1939 World's Fair, 



the landscape architecture of 
Colonial Williamsburg, and Pershing 
Park in Washington, DC, are 
affirmations of the lasting contribu- 
tions of academy alumni. 

The Academy's dedication to 
pluralism of expression is paralleled 
by the diversity of its fellows. Recent 
fellows — generally around 25 per 
year — range in age from 25 to 52; 
half are women and 13 percent 
are of minority heritage. From the 
academy's beginning, the idea of 
the public realm and the obligation 
of fellows to contribute to the beauty, 
quality of life, and efficiency of 
urban spaces has been a central 
goal of these fellowships. That so 
many of the academy's fellows have 
taken this philosophy to heart upon 
their return is a testament to this 
singular resource and the impact it 
has had on the fabric of our nation. 




Credits 

National Endowment for the Arts, 
Design Arts Program, Washington, DC 

American Academy in Rome, 
New York, NY 



55 



Landscape Architecture 



Weavers Bottoms 
Rehabilitation 



Historic Landscape 
Initiative 



With its recent rehabilitation of a 
backwater habitat on the Upper 
Mississippi River, the Army Corps of 
Engineers has developed a radically 
new approach to environmental 
design that acknowledges the river 
as part of a natural and changing 
system. The Weavers Bottoms Reha- 
bilitation project is part of a 40-year 
plan for channel maintenance 
dredging on the Upper Mississippi in 
Minnesota. The project's goals were 
to restore and preserve a 4,000- 
acre backwater lake whose fish and 
wildlife populations had markedly 
declined over the past 25 years and 
to provide effective, low cost, and 
environmentally sensitive mainte- 
nance of the channel. 

The design methodology estab- 
lished by the Army Corps sets a 
new and exemplary precedent 
involving extensive collaboration 
between the Corps, the Fish and 
Wildlife Service, and researchers at 
local institutions of higher learning. 
The final design drew heavily on 
the data collected by the universities 
and involved principles of ecological 
restoration, landscape architecture 
and hydraulic, coastal and founda- 
tions engineering. 





The plan called for creating two 
barrier islands located in the South- 
east section of Weaver Bottoms. 
These islands, art forms in them- 
selves, were created using computer 
models to develop the appropriate 
shapes. Their creation has signifi- 
cantly reduced water and sediment 
inflows into the backwater and 
annual dredging of the channel has 
been reduced. One of the islands 
was seeded with native marsh 
grasses and now provides a nesting 
ground for water fowl. 

The Weavers Bottoms Rehab- 
ilitation is being treated as an on- 
going research project, making 
changes and adjustments as data 
are collected on the impact of the 
design. It is environmental design 
in the truest sense — thoughtful 
manipulation of the environment 
toward a positive and environmen- 
tally beneficial purpose. 

Credits 

Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Corps 
of Engineers, St. Paul District, St. Paul, MN 

Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish 
Refuge, Winona, MN 

McCombs, Frank, Roos Association, 
Plymouth, MN 

Calvin Fremling and Dennis N. Nielsen, 
Winona State University, Winona, MN 

David McConville and Rory Vose, 
St. Mary's College, Winona, MN 



Though it surrounds us, the Ameri- 
can landscape is often unrecognized 
as having inherent merit worthy of 
preservation for historic as well as 
environmental reasons. While pres- 
ervationists have shown uncommon 
ardor in their quest to preserve and 
protect buildings, only recently has 
attention been paid to the preserva- 
tion of historic American landscapes. 

The National Park Service is 
responsible for setting policy on the 
preservation of the significant histori- 
cal resources in the United States. 
Its Historic Landscape Initiative is 
now actively preserving profession- 
ally designed as well as urban and 
rural vernacular landscapes of his- 
toric value in addition to educating 
government officials, preservationists 
and the general public about the 
value of historic landscapes and 
providing the tools and expertise to 
make sound policy decisions to 
preserve them. 

Under the initiative, three major 
publications: How to Evaluate and 
Nominate Designed Historic Land- 
scapes, Guidelines for Evaluating 
and Documenting Rural Historic 
Landscapes, and an annotated 
bibliography, Preserving Historic 
Landscapes, have been published. 
These three works begin to establish 




56 



Alaska Maritime National 
Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive 
Conservation Plan 



a crucial base of information that 
allows people to better assess the 
value of historic landscapes and 
take action to preserve them. The 
initiative also has greatly increased 
the amount of technical assistance 
and training dedicated to historic 
landscape preservation including 
four annual symposia in collabora- 
tion with the American Society of 
Landscape Architects and educa- 
tional sessions with the Alliance for 
Historic Landscape Preservation. 

Since the initiative began in 
1987, nearly 300 historic properties 
with significance in landscape 
architecture have been listed on the 
National Register of Historic Places 
— representing a 35 percent increase 
in the number of nominations as 
well as a tremendous increase in 
the quality of the submissions. 




Credits 

Department of the Interior, National Park 
Service, Preservation Assistance Division 
and Interagency Resources Division, 
Washington, DC 

Land and Community Associates, 
Charlottesville, VA 

American Society of Landscape Architects, 
Washington, DC 

Alliance for Historic Landscape 
Preservation, Cambridge, MA 




The Alaska Maritime National 
Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive 
Conservation Plan is a benchmark 
document in conservation and re- 
source management that addresses 
a daunting array of complex issues 
related to the prudent administration 
of 4.9 million acres of Alaska wilder- 
ness preserve. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service was 
charged with developing a system- 
atic plan to ensure the survival of the 
fish and wildlife populations — and 
their respective habitats — that make 
their home in this vast and forbid- 
ding terrain. Some 30,000 miles of 
Alaska coastline is home to one of 
the world's largest remaining sea- 
bird concentrations. The refuge also 
teems with fish, walrus, polar bears, 
Northern sea lions and other sea 
mammals. All of these creatures are 
part of the delicate arctic ecosystem. 
But the area is also home to Alaska 
natives whose livelihoods depend 
directly on the area's bounty. 

The purpose of this plan was to 
evaluate the requirements of these 
disparate elements and establish a 
set of logical controls to mitigate any 



adverse impact on this pristine wil- 
derness resource. The authors of the 
plan conducted field surveys of the 
refuge area, held meetings in 37 
rural communities located within the 
refuge, and interviewed representa- 
tives from the military, local, state 
and federal agencies, commercial 
fishermen, conservationists and 
native corporations. 

The result of this hands-on 
approach is a useful plan that con- 
veys all the technical knowledge 
required to manage the refuge 
expressed in everyday language. 
Addressing issues such as oil and 
gas exploration, development, log- 
ging and ocean pollution, the 1 75- 
page manual outlines legislative 
initiatives needed to preserve the 
refuge and provides a valuable 
example for future regional planning 
efforts at all levels of government. 

Credits 

Department of the Interior, Fish & Wildlife 
Service, Region 7, Anchorage, AK, and 
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, 
Homer AK 



57 



Urban Design and Planning 



Southeast Federal Center 
Master Plan 



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simple creation of office space by 
assiduously avoiding the isolating 
effect that massive building projects 
can impose on the fabric of the 
surrounding neighborhood. 

The master plan calls for the 
area to be reintegrated into 
Washington's street grid in accor- 
dance with Pierre Charles L'Enfant's 
original design for the city, and 
further considers its effect on issues 
such as zoning, land-use, transpor- 
tation, historic preservation, commu- 
nity context and utilities. In its 
exhaustive review of the site and 
its singular resources, the master 
plan presents options for sensible 
and sensitive development that 
maintains access to the Anacostia 
River, allows for the creation of 



As the largest land developer in 
the nation, the General Services 
Administration (GSA) faces the 
pressing mandate of providing 
federal agencies with safe, healthful 
and environmentally sound work- 
places. This mandate, in conjunction 
with a desire to reduce federal 
dependence on costly leased office 
space in Washington, DC, gave 
rise to the Southeast Federal Center 
and its master plan. 

The plan calls for creating 
5.5 million square feet of new and 
adoptively reused office space, 
1 00,000 square feet of new service 
retail space — including a retail 
arcade, 89,000 square feet of 
"destination" retail space, 5,500 
parking spaces below grade, and 
an integrated system of parks and 
promenades focusing on the site's 
waterfront location. The GSA master 
plan, however, goes beyond the 




58 




government-owned office space, 
recognizes the need for community 
stability and retail access, addresses 
the need for significant public open 
spaces, and preserves structures of 
historic significance. 

This approach to problem solving 
in urban design reinforces and 
upholds the view that the federal 
government has a positive leader- 
ship role to play in revitalization and 
redevelopment of our urban centers. 
Implementation of the plan will have 
a positive influence on the character 
of development in the area immedi- 
ately beyond the project site. 

Credits 

General Services Administration, 
National Capital Region, 
Washington, DC 

Keyes Condon Florance 
Eichbaum Esocoff King, 
Washington, DC 



Charrette Process: 
A Model to Enhance 
Design Quality 

Following the completion of the 
Southeast Federal Center Master 
Plan (described on page 58), the 
General Services Administration 
(GSA) held a design charrette to 
evaluate the master plan and gener- 
ate guidelines for future planning 
and design decisions on the project. 
The charrette provided a mechanism 
for an interdisciplinary design team 
to collaborate on potential solutions 
for difficult planning and design 
issues, foster new and innovative 
design ideas for the site, give con- 
sideration at the beginning of the 
design process to a variety factors 
that will influence the project's qual- 
ity, and establish a methodology for 
the planning/design process that 
can be applied to a wide variety of 
GSA projects to encourage creativity 
and quality. 

The GSA, with the assistance 
of the Design Arts Program of the 
National Endowment for the Arts 
and the Federal Construction Coun- 
cil of the National Academy of Sci- 
ences, assembled a charrette team 
representing nationwide experience 
and diverse design expertise. The 
team reviewed the master plan in 
detail, visited the 55-acre site and 
surrounding neighborhoods, and 
developed a series of recommenda- 
tions that refined the plan before a 
Request For Proposals (RFP) was 
issued to developers. The charrette 
addressed the master plan on three 
levels: broad visions of the plan, 
specific recommendations on visual 




to 




image, and suggestions for design 
implementation. The charrette report 
encapsulates the team's recommen- 
dations and documents the process, 
providing a guide and framework 
for the evaluation of subsequent 
projects to be accomplished by 
separate RFP's. 

The charrette — which cost less 
than $20,000 — is an inexpensive 
means of fostering excellence in 
federal planning and design. It has 
substantially improved a massive 
development project that will have 
impact on the lives of thousands of 
federal workers and neighborhood 
residents for generations to come 
and that will restore a forgotten 
neighborhood to the vibrant fabric 
of the nation's capital. 

Credit 

General Services Administration, 
National Capital Region, 
Washington, DC 



59 



Urban Design and Planning 



Talbot Street 
Historic Area 
Architectural Guidelines 




Most citizens would agree that 
preserving our nation's historic 
architecture is a worthy endeavor, 
but the requirements imposed by 
establishing historic districts can lead 
to confusion, non-compliance and 
community resentment. The Talbot 
Street Historic Area Architectural 
Guidelines are an example of how 
extensive community involvement 
can result in a framework that serves 
the community and its historic struc- 
tures now and into the future. 

Located on the Eastern Shore 
of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland, 
St. Michaels is a small town that 
contains significant historic resources 



endangered by commercial growth, 
primarily from tourism. While the 
town took steps to establish a his- 
toric district, at the same time it 
acknowledged that a comprehensive 
set of guidelines was needed to 
direct the efforts of building owners, 






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town planners and the town's 
Commission for Design Review. 
Supported by a grant from the 
Design Arts Program of the National 
Endowment for the Arts, the town 
government, local historical society 
and an outside consultant undertook 
the drafting of preservation guide- 
lines. 

The resulting preservation plan 
stands out from others in that it is 
specific and detailed, addressing 
issues related to every building in the 
Talbot Street district. This achieve- 
ment was only possible through the 
extensive contributions of town resi- 
dents and property owners and their 
willingness to collaborate closely 
with the project's design consultant. 
Numerous community meetings 
addressed resident concerns and 
resulted in an on-going educational 
process that invested new civic ap- 
preciation of St. Michaels' history 
and architectural resources. 

The final document is thorough 
and clearly presented. Community 
input has fostered a sense of com- 
munal stewardship of the historic 
district, and every building owner 
has a clear, site-specific guide to 
the preservation of his or her prop- 
erty. The guidelines are an inspiring 
piece of community action that 
ensures preservation of a town's 
architectural heritage while laying 
a course that will engender long- 
term economic and social benefits 
for its community. 

Credits 

National Endowment for the Arts, 
Design Arts Program, Washington, DC 

Ekstrom + Associates, Fargo, ND 



60 



Banfield Light Rail 
Transitway 



In Oregon, the Banfield Light Rail 
Transitway has had a profound 
impact on the economy and quality 
of life of the communities it serves 
because every aspect of the system 
was carefully considered early in 
the planning process. The 15-mile, 
25-station transitway connects 
downtown Portland, East Multnomah 
County and the city of Gresham. 
The project was initiated and de- 
signed to exemplify the governing 
philosophy that underscores 
Oregon's approach to transporta- 
tion: it must contribute to economic 
and community development and 



enhance the quality of the liveable 
environment as well as facilitate 
movement and access. 

The Banfield project became the 
focus for regional development on 
a neighborhood-by-neighborhood 
basis and fully exploits the potential 
of light rail transit systems to stimu- 
late development where desirable 
and to pass through sensitive areas 
with minimal impact. The design 
elements of each neighborhood are 
captured in the stations. 

Light rail transit systems typically 
involve areas where railways, auto- 
mobiles and pedestrians merge, and 





■'O aBB tfil 



the potential for conflicts and acci- 
dents is high. The Banfield system 
drew on the findings of a Downtown 
Pedestrian Streets Study that estab- 
lished how street right-of-ways 
would be organized to accommo- 
date multiple usage. The integration 
of the system into the existing urban 
fabric ensured that the rail system 
would not disrupt nor pose a safety 
concern for the communities through 
which it passes. 

Constructed for $212 million, 
or $13 million per mile, the Banfield 
Light Rail Transitway was remarkably 
economical for a project of this 
scope. Completed in 1986, the 
system already has exceeded 
projected ridership levels and has 
stimulated both public and private 
development along its corridor, 
resulting in a development value 
that is three times greater than the 
capital cost of the system. 

Credits 

Department of Transportation, 

Federal Transit Administration, Region 10, 

Seattle, WA 

Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership, 
Portland, OR 



61 



Index of Awards by 

Federal Department and Agency 



Central Intelligence Agency 

Ailas of Eastern Europe, Washington, DC, 
p.47 



Department off Agriculture 

Northern Crop Science Laboratory, 
Fargo, ND, p. 24 

Farmers Home Administration 

*Mer Rouge Villas, Mer Rouge, LA, p. 6 

Department off Defense 

Department of the Army 

Articulated Anthropometric Robot, 
Richland, WA, p. 42 

*Bendway Weirs on the Mississippi River, 
St. Louis, MO, p. 72 

*Blue Heron Coal Mining Camp, 
Big South Fork National River, KY, p. 8 

Mount St. Helens Long Term Recovery 
Project, Mount St. Helens and vicinity, 
WA, p. 36 

Weaver Bottoms Rehabilitation, 
Wabaasha County, MN, p. 56 

Wilmington Harbor South Disposal Area, 
Wilmington, DE, p. 34 

Department of the Navy 

Alameda Naval Aviation Depot Plating 
Shop, Alameda, CA, p. 35 

Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base, 
Kings Bay, GA, p. 37 

National Security Agency 

STU-III Program, Fort Meade, MD, p. 42 



Department off Energy 

Articulated Anthropometric Robot, 
Richland, WA, p. 42 

Fast Flux Test Facility, Richland, WA, p. 40 

Metered Analysis for Building Operation 
and Maintenance, Washington, DC, p. 40 

Seismic Upgrade of Building B-l 11 , 
Livermore, CA, p. 38 



Department of Health 
and Human Services 

Centers for Disease Control 

Viral/Rickettsial Diseases Laboratory, 
Atlanta, GA, p. 38 

Social Security Administration 

Metro West Day Care Center, 
Baltimore, MD, p. 43 



Department of Housing 
and Urban Development 

Charleston Waterfront Park, 
Charleston, SC, p. 54 

Frank G. Mar Community Housing 
Project, Oakland, CA, p. 27 



Department of the Interior 

Fish & Wildlife Service 

Alaska Maritime National Wildlife 
Refuge Comprehensive Conservation 
Plan, Coastal Alaska, p. 57 

Geological Survey 

'Arctic Data InterActive, Reston, VA, p. 78 
Map Projections Poster, Reston, VA, p. 46 

National Park Service 

Bicentennial Lighthouse Fund Program, 
Washington, DC, p. 30 

Ellis Island Immigration Museum 
Exhibits, Ellis Island, NY, p. 50 

Ellis Island Immigration Museum 
Restoration, Ellis Island, NY, p. 29 

Historic Landscape Initiative, 
Washington, DC, p. 56 

'Old Faithful Inn Rehabilitation, 
Yellowstone National Park, WY, p. 70 

Sequoia and Kings Canyon Road 
Character Guidelines, Three Rivers, CA, 
p.48 

"Windows Through Time" Exhibit, 
Washington, DC, p. 5 7 



Department of Justice 

Bureau of Prisons 

Federal Correctional Institution, 
Sheridan, OR, p. 24 



62 



Department of State 

*EGIS Explosives Detector, 
Washington, DC, p. 20 



Department of Transportation 

Federal Aviation Administration 

*EGIS Explosives Detector, 
Washington, DC, p. 20 

Federal Highway Administration 

Interstate 10 Completion, Phoenix, AZ, 
p. 32 

Roosevelt Lake Bridge, Gila County, AZ, 
p. 33 

Second Ohio Historic Bridge Inventory, 
Evaluation and Preservation Plan, 
Columbus, OH, p. 31 

South Beltline Freeway, Madison, Wl, 
p. 34 

Varina-Enon Bridge, Richmond, VA, p. 32 

Federal Railroad Administration 

Washington Union Station Rehabilitation, 
Washington, DC, p. 28 

Federal Transit Administration 

Banfield Light Rail Transitway, 
Portland, OR, p. 61 

Department of Veterans Affairs 

Hospital Building System, Nationwide, 
p.41 

Massachusetts National Cemetery, 
Bourne, MA, p. 54 

Environmental 
Protection Agency 

North River Water Pollution Control Plant, 
New York, NY, p. 25 

General Accounting Office 

Publishing Consultant Program, 
Washington, DC, p. 49 

General Services 
Administration 

Charrette Process: A Model to Enhance 
Design Quality, Washington, DC, p. 59 

Southeast Federal Center Master Plan, 
Washington, DC, p. 58 



National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration 

Space Suit Wall Sheet, Washington, DC, 
p. 46 

Goddard Space Flight Center 

Spacecraft Systems Development and 
Integration Facility, Greenbelt, MD, p. 39 

Jet Propulsion Laboratory 

Voyager at Neptune: 1989, 
Pasadena, CA, p. 45 

Voyager at Neptune Poster, 
Pasadena, CA, p.44 



National Endowment 
for the Arts 

American Academy in Rome Landscape 
Architecture Fellowship Program, 
New York, NY, p. 55 

Escondido Civic Center Signage and 
Graphics Program, Escondido, CA, p. 53 

Talbot Street Historic Area Architectural 
Guidelines, St. Michaels, MD, p. 60 



National Gallery of Art 

♦Exhibition Design 1984-1990, 
Washington DC, p. 16 

Rauschenberg Overseas Cultural Inter- 
change Catalogue, Washington, DC, p. 48 



Smithsonian Institution 

Cooper- Hewitt, 

National Museum of Design 

'Keys and Locks in the Collection of the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum, New York, NY, 
p.14 

National Museum of 
American History 

Imperishable Beauty: Pictures Printed in 
Collotype Catalogue, Washington, DC, 
p.44 

U.S. Information Agency 

International Exhibits 1987-1990, 
Worldwide, p. 52 

U.S. Postal Service 

Post Office, Glendale Heights, IL, p.26 



•Recipient of a Presidential Award 
for Design Excellence 



63 



Credits 



This publication was produced under 
a cooperative agreement between 
Community Ventures, Washington, DC, 
and the Design Arts Program of the 
National Endowment for the Arts. 

Editors: 

Mina Wright Berryman 

Thomas B. Grooms 

Writers: 

Thomas B. Grooms 

Nicholas Backlund 

Design: 

Cox & Associates, Inc. 



National Endowment for the Arts 
Design Arts Program, Room 627 
The Nancy Hanks Center 
1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW 
Washington, DC 20506 
202/682-5437 



ISSN-1049-541X 
November 1992 



Photographs: 

Page 6 
Timothy Hursley 

Page 6-7 

Wenzel & Associates, 

Architects 

Pages 8-9 
Michael A. Hanke 

Page 10 
Andy Beck 

Page 10-11 (large) 
Andy Beck 

Page 1 1 (small) 
National Park Service 

Page 1 5 (bottom) 
Karen Johnson 

Page 16-17 
Kathleen Buckalew 

Page 24 (top) 
Strode/Eckert 

Page 24 (bottom) 
Tom Hlavaty 

Page 25 
Ted Long 

Page 26 
Barry Rustin 
Photography 

Page 28 

Carol M. Highsmith 

Photography 

Page 29 (large) 
Sherman Morss, Jr. 

Page 29 (small) 
Peter Aaron/Esto 



Page 30 (large) 
Doug Nadeau, 
National Park Service 

Page 30 (small) 
Candace Clifford, 
National Park Service 

Page 32 (top) 
Virginia Department 
of Transportation 

Page 32-33 (bottom) 
ADOT/HNTB 

Page 33 

G.C. Wangelin 

Page 34 (top) 
Wisconsin Department 
of Transportation 

Page 34-35 (bottom) 
Anthony Bley 

Page 35 

Naval Aviation Depot, 

Alameda, CA 

Page 36 

U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers, 
Portland District 

Page 37 
U.S. Navy 

Page 38 (bottom) 
STV/Sanders & Thomas 

Page 39 

STV/Sanders & Thomas 

Page 40 

Westinghouse Hanford 
Company 

Page 41 

(top & bottom right) 
Stone Marraccini 
Patterson, Architects 



Page 42 (top) 
Pacific Northwest 
Laboratory 

Page 43 (left) 
Pacific Northwest 
Laboratory 

Page 43 

(bottom & top right) 

Ron Blunt 

Page 46 (top) 
Larry Chapman 

Page 47 (bottom) 
Larry Chapman 

Page 50 

Norman McGrath, ASMP 

Page 51 

Jack E. Boucher 

Page 53 
Edward Gohlich 
Photography 

Page 54 (bottom-left) 
David Soliday 

Page 54-55 (bottom) 
Carol R. Johnson & 
Associates, Inc. 

Page 57 (top) 
L. Poppy Benson 

Page 58 (bottom) 
Grover E. Mouton III 

Page 59 (top-left) 
Grover E. Mouton III 

Page 59 (top-right) 
Kevin Kelly 



64 









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